Table 2. Address position variables and P values for the anteroposterior ball positions (mean ± standard deviation).
  1 Left 1/2 Left Ref. 1/2 Right 1 Right P
  Address position variables
Shoulder rotation (°) -0.6 ± 3.1 -0.7 ±2.9 -0.8 ± 3.2 -0.6 ± 2.7 -0.6 ± 3.2 0.90
Pelvic rotation (°) 0.6 ± 3.3 0.4 ± 3.0 1.1 ± 3.3 0.9 ± 3.2 1.1 ± 3.2 0.20
Shoulder side-bending (°) -12.1 ± 2.7 -12.1 ± 2.7 -12.0 ± 2.6 -11.9 ± 2.7 -12.0 ± 2.8 0.60
Pelvic side-bending (°) -0.3 ± 3.0 -0.5 ± 3.2 -0.3 ± 2.7 0.0 ± 2.7 -0.0 ± 3.0 0.28
Trunk flexion (°) 40.2 ± 3.3 40.7 ± 2.9 41.5 ± 2.9 42.2 ± 3.1 42.8 ± 3.4 <0.001*ǁǁ**††‡‡§§
Left hip flexion (°) 32.5 ± 7.3 33.1 ± 7.1 34.1 ± 7.5 34.6 ± 7.8 35.0 ± 7.6 0.02
Right hip flexion (°) 35.2 ± 7.9 36.0 ± 8.0 37.1 ± 8.2 37.7 ± 8.1 38.1 ± 7.6 <0.001
Left knee flexion (°) 19.3 ± 7.2 19.9 ± 7.0 21.5 ± 7.4 22.0 ± 7.2 22.9 ± 6.8 <0.001*ǁǁ§§
Right knee flexion (°) 22.0 ± 5.0 22.9 ± 5.4 24.4 ± 5.5 25.0 ± 5.2 25.9 ± 5.1 <0.001*ǁǁ††§§
Left ankle dorsiflexion (°) 3.7 ± 3.4 4.0 ± 3.5 4.9 ± 3.7 5.1 ± 3.7 5.6 ± 3.6 <0.001*ǁǁ**
Right ankle dorsiflexion (°) 4.3 ± 2.5 4.6 ± 2.9 5.2 ± 2.9 5.8 ± 2.7 6.2 ± 2.7 <0.001*ǁǁ
Hand height (mm) 667.6 ± 23.3 663.4 ± 22.7 655.8 ± 21.8 652.7 ± 21.6 649.3 ± 19.7 <0.001*§ǁǁ**††‡‡
Head height (mm) 1527.8 ± 48.6 1524.5 ± 47.8 1517.9 ± 51.7 1515.9 ± 48.0 1511.6 ± 46.5 <0.001*ǁǁ
Absolute arm angle (°) -2.8 ± 3.3 -2.4 ± 2.7 -1.3 ± 2.8 -1.1 ± 3.00 -0.4 ± 3.2 <0.001*ǁǁ**††
Club-face aim angle (°) -2.6 ± 2.7 -1.9 ± 4.0 -2.1 ± 3.1 -2.7 ± 2.9 -2.7 ± 2.9 0.12
Lie angle (°) 54.2 ± 2.4 53.5 ± 2.4 52.8 ± 2.3 52.3 ± 2.2 51.9 ± 2.1 <0.001*ǁǁ††§§
Loft angle (°) 17.0 ± 2.9 18.9 ± 4.8 18.6 ± 3.4 18.8 ± 2.8 19.4 ± 2.9 0.17
Left VGRF (%BW) 54.4 ± 4.3 54.1 ± 4.9 54.3 ± 5.8 53.2 ± 4.4 53.4 ± 5.3 0.03
Right VGRF (%BW) 45.6 ± 4.3 45.9 ± 4.9 45.7 ± 5.8 46.8 ± 4.4 46.6 ± 5.3 0.03
COP Y (mm) -0.5 ± 4.8 -0.6 ± 4.9 0.00 0.1 ± 2.9 -0.7 ± 2.7 0.82
COP X (mm) -8.4 ± 7.1 -4.1 ± 9.1 0.00 6.1 ± 7.8 11.5 ± 12.2 <0.001*ǁǁ
  Club-head kinematics at impact
Club-face aim (○) 3.5 ± 3.7 3.5 ± 3.5 1.7 ± 3.8 5.0 ± 3.2 4.6 ± 3.5 0.002
Club-head speed (m/s) 35.1 ± 2.5 35.3 ± 2.3 35.5 ± 2.0 35.8 ± 2.5 35.8 ± 2.3 0.003*
Club path (m/s) 1.3 ± 1.5 1.4 ± 1.6 0.9 ± 1.6 1.4 ± 1.3 1.2 ± 1.5 0.15
Angle of attack (m/s) -2.2 ± 1.2 -2.2 ± 1.5 -2.5 ± 1.1 -2.7 ± 1.4 -1.9 ± 1.4 0.02††§§
Post hoc significant differences (p < 0.05) for pairwise comparisons:
*1 close vs. 1 further,
†1 close vs. 1/2 further,
‡1 close vs. reference,
§1 close vs. 1/2 close,
ǁǁ1/2 close vs. 1 further,
¶1/2 close vs. 1/2 further,
**1/2 close vs. reference,
††Reference vs. 1 further,
‡‡Reference vs. 1/2 further,
§§1/2 further vs. 1 further.
COP Y: change of the center of pressure along the mediolateral direction, COP X: change of the center of pressure along the anteroposterior direction, VGRF: vertical ground reaction force, BW: body weight.