Table 1. Characteristics of included studies.
Study, year Study design Population Time Period Anatomical Injury Location Identifiable Pathologies Gender Split Total Runners Total Injured Runners Total Injuries
Maughan and Miller (1983)c,d RetrospectiveInjuryQuestionnaire MarathonM & F(32 ± 8 y ) 6months Y N N 497 287 358
Linde (1986)c Prospective InjuryQuestionnaire OrienteersM & F(19 – 34 y) 1year Y N N 42 _* 73
Collins et al. (1989)c RetrospectiveInjuryQuestionnaire TriathlonM & F(mean age: 32 y) 1year Y S N 257 _* 105
van Mechelen et al. (1993)b RCT(ProspectiveQuestionnaire) RecreationalM (adults) 16weeks Y N MO 327 _* 49
Jakobsen et al. (1994)c,d Prospective Controlled Trial (Prospective Questionnaire) RecreationalM & F(24 – 56 y) 1year Y S N 20 13 21
Wen et al. (1998)d Cross-Sectional Associative Study(Retrospective Questionnaire) Experienced / MarathonRunnersM & F(20 – 78 y) 1year Y N N 304 136 217
Williams et al. (2001) Cross-Sectional Associative Study(RetrospectiveQuestionnaire) AmateurM & F(18 – 50 y) _ Y N N 40 _* 134
Chorley et al. (2002)d RetrospectiveInjuryQuestionnaire Novice& AmateurM & F(mean age: 34 y) 3years Y N N 1548 590 977
Taunton et al. (2003)a,b ProspectiveInjuryQuestionnaire RecreationalM & F(<30 - >56y) 13weeks Y N Y 840 249 _*
Taunton et al. (2002)a,b,c Retrospective Analysis ofMedical Records AmateurM & F(mean age: 34 y) 2years Y Y Y 2002 2002 2002
Lun et al. (2004)d Cross-Sectional Associative Study(RetrospectiveQuestionnaire) Recreational M & F(≥18 y) _ Y N N 87 80 170
McKean et al. (2006)d RetrospectiveInjuryQuestionnaire Amateur Young (_ y) and Masters (>40y)M & F 1year S S N 2825 1309 2271
Van Middelkoop et al. (2008)b,d RetrospectiveInjuryQuestionnaire MarathonParticipantsM 1year Y N MO 694 397 550
Knobloch et al. (2008)c Cross-Sectional / Retrospective Exposure and Injury Questionnaire Master AthletesM & F(42 ± 9 y) Lastseason Y Y N 291 _* 677
Van Ginckel et al. (2009) Prospectiveassociative study Novice M & F(39 ± 10 y) 10weeks Y S N 129 _* 69
Ryan et al. (2011)a,d RCT (Prospective Questionnaire) Recreational F(18 – 50y) 13weeks Y N FO 81 26 194
Lopes et al. (2011)a,b,d Cross Sectional Survey Recreational5-10km M & F(≥ 18 y) Current Y N Y 1049 227 _*
Bredeweg et al. (2012) RCT(Prospective Questionnaire) NoviceM & F(18-65y) 13weeks Y N N 362 _* 58
Chang et al. (2012)d RetrospectiveInjuryQuestionnaire Recreational 10km – Marathon M & F(20 – 50y) _ Y N N 893 396 604
Hespanhol Junior et al. (2012)c,d RetrospectiveInjuryQuestionnaire RecreationalM & F(43 ± 10.5 y) 1year Y S N 200 110 110*
Vadeboncoeur et al. (2012)a,d Cross-Sectional Associative Study(RetrospectiveQuestionnaire) Recreational Half-M/ MarathonM & F(24 – 70y) 30days Y N Y 194 62 62*
Hendricks and Phillips (2013)d ProspectiveInjuryQuestionnaire Club LevelM & F (≥ 19 y) 16weeks Y N N 50 16 50
Rasmussen et al. (2013)d RetrospectiveInjuryQuestionnaire Recreational MarathonM & F(41 ± 10 y) 12months Y N N 662 68 _*
Hespanhol Junior et al. (2013)d ProspectiveInjuryQuestionnaire RecreationalM & F(43 ± 11 y) 12weeks Y N N 191 60 84
Ogwumike and Adeniyi (2013)d Cross Sectional Survey MarathonParticipants _ Y N N 920 153 254
Nielsen et al. (2014)a,b,c,d ProspectiveCohort Study NoviceM & F(18 – 65 y) 1year Y Y Y 930 254 _*
Theisen et al. (2014)d RCT(Prospective Questionnaire) RecreationalM & F(42 ± 10 y) 5months Y N N 247 69 _*
Malisoux et al. (2015)d ProspectiveCohort Study AmateurM & F (>18y) 22weeks Y N N 264 87 _*
Altman and Davis (2016)c ProspectiveCohort Study Competitive Amateur M & F(18 – 50y) 1year Y* Y N 201 _* 154
Kerr et al. (2016)a,b Retrospective Analysis ofMedical Records CollegiateM&F 4years Y N Y _* _* 476
Teixeira et al. (2016)d Cross Sectional Interview(Retrospective Pain Recall) Elite Marathon M & F(30 – 39y) 12months Y N N 199 149 235
van der Worp et al. (2016)a,d ProspectiveCohort Study Recreational5 – 10km F(39 ± 12 y) 12weeks Y N FO 373 93 102
Malisoux et al. (2016a)d RCT RecreationalM & F18 – 65y 6months Y N N 553 136 136*
Hespanhol Junior et al. (2016)c,d ProspectiveCohort Study(Retrospective & Prospective Questionnaire) RecreationalM & F44 y ± 11 y _12weeks Y Y N 8989 4924 7833
Smits et al. (2016) ProspectiveCohort NoviceM & F18 – 65y 6weeks Y N N _* 135 150
Hespanhol Junior et al. (2017a)c,d ProspectiveCohort TrailM&F43.4 y 14months Y Y N 223 148 242
a= used to report anatomical location of injury in females
b=used to report anatomical location of injury in males
c=used to report overall proportions of specific injury pathology
d= used to report the overall prevalence of injury,
*=uncertainty about one of the following: the number of runners, the number of injured runners or the total number of injuries. M= male, F = female. MO=male only, FO=female only.