Table 2. Altered plasma metabolites in the control, exhaustive exercise and recovery groups for male and female rats (n=10).
Compounds RT(min) VIP S-d10/Control R-d7/Control R-d7/S-d10
FC(Male) p FC(Female) p FC(Male) p FC(Female) p FC(Male) p FC(Female) p
Amino acid
Valine 7.68 1.43 1.88 0.016 2.62 <0.001 2.00 0.008 0.35 <0.001 0.52 0.013
Serine 8.25 1.29 0.51 0.010 0.58 0.034 1.73 0.035
Leucine 8.48 1.67 2.09 0.005 2.82 <0.001 2.75 <0.001 0.35 <0.001 0.57 0.028
Methionine 12.88 1.45 2.75 <0.001 1.69 0.041 0.58 0.034
5-oxo-proline 12.93 1.71 2.82 <0.001 2.82 <0.001 0.58 0.034
Glutamic acid 15.05 1.25 0.41 <0.001 2.56 <0.001 0.48 0.005 2.62 <0.001
Ornithine 19.65 1.34 2.82 <0.001 2.44 <0.001
Organic acid
Lactic acid 5.56 1.68 0.35 <0.001 0.35 <0.001
3-Hydroxybutyric acid 6.88 1.96 2.82 <0.001 2.62 <0.001 2.82 <0.001 0.45 0.002 0.41 <0.001 0.36 <0.001
Fumaric acid 9.55 1.16 2.18 0.003 2.56 <0.001
Butanedioic acid 12.37 1.26 2.50 <0.001 0.47 0.003
Citric acid 19.91 1.81 2.82 <0.001 2.56 <0.001 0.52 0.011
Fatty acid
Linoleic acid 27.65 1.39 2.23 0.002 2.23 0.002 0.56 0.023 0.40 <0.001
Oleic acid 27.73 1.47 2.62 <0.001 2.23 0.002 2.23 0.002 0.44 0.002
Arachidonic acid 29.54 1.08 1.84 0.019 0.50 0.008
Carbohydrate
D-(+)-Glucose 22.12 1.11 0.52 0.013
Other metabolites
Urea 8.16 1.40 2.39 0.001
Phosphate 8.65 1.18 2.28 0.002 2.00 0.008 2.04 <0.001 0.35
Myo-inostiol 26.17 1.31 1.80 0.023 2.18 0.003
RT: The retention time of each compound from GC-MS; VIP: Variable importance in the project; FC: Fold Change. Mean ranks were calculated using the nonparametric Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitey test by SPSS 18.0, and FC was obtained by comparing those metabolites’ mean ranks among the three groups (exhaustive exercise group vs control group, recovery group vs exhaustive exercise group, and recovery group vs control group) in male and female rats. FC with a value >1 indicates a relatively higher level present in exhaustive exercise or recovery group as compared to the control group, while a value <1 means a relatively lower level in exhaustive exercise or recovery group as compared to the control group. S-d10: 10 days swimming group (exhaustive exercise group); R-d7: 7 days recovery group; p: Correlation coefficient from Mann-Whitney test. p<0.05 means the change is significant.