Table 2. One-year longitudinal changes in the upper arm and thigh muscle thicknesses. Data presented are the means (standard deviations).
Late group
n = 12
Mid group
n = 12
Early group
n = 17
F value
Interaction Main effect
time group
VM (mm) Baseline 32.5 (3.9) 33.4 (4.6) 35.9 (4.5) 3.42b 59.97§ 1.25
12 months 36.8 (4.8)** 37.9 (3.5)** 37.9 (3.5)**
Δ 4.3 (2.9) 4.5 (3.4) 2.0 (2.7)
RF (mm) Baseline 21.1 (2.9) 22.0 (3.2) 25.1 (3.3) 6.36a 51.62§ 4.99
12 months 23.2 (2.4)** 24.2 (2.6)** 25.7 (3.1)
Δ 2.1 (1.2) 2.2 (1.6) 0.5 (1.5)
VI (mm) Baseline 18.0 (3.9) 17.7 (2.5) 19.8 (2.9) 2.91 13.35§ 0.73
12 months 19.5 (3.5)* 20.3 (2.9)** 20.2 (3.7)
Δ 1.5 (2.0) 2.7 (2.7) 0.3 (2.9)
VL (mm) Baseline 22.8 (3.5) 22.8 (3.3) 25.7 (3.5) 6.98a 52.39§ 1.8
12 months 25.6 (2.9)** 25.6 (2.8)** 26.4 (3.3)
Δ 2.8 (1.5) 2.8 (2.7) 0.6 (1.1)
n = 8 n = 10 n = 6
BB (mm) Baseline 23.4 (3.1) 24.9 (2.6) 29.6 (2.3) 3.56b 65.09§ 5.02
12 months 29.0 (4.6)** 28.6 (2.9)** 31.9 (2.1)*
Δ 5.6 (2.8) 3.7 (2.5) 2.4 (0.5)
TB (mm) Baseline 22.6 (2.7) 25.0 (2.6) 28.2 (4.5) 0.33 3.61 9.42§
12 months 24.2 (2.3)## 25.8 (3.3)# 30.5 (4.3)
Δ 1.6 (3.2) 0.7 (3.1) 2.3 (5.6)
BB: biceps brachii, RF: rectus femoris, TB: triceps brachii, VI: vastus intermedius, VL: vastus lateralis, VM: vastus medialis
a p < 0.01,
b p < 0.05: significant interaction.
§ p < 0.01,
¶ p < 0.05: significant main effect.
* p < 0.05,
** p < 0.01: vs baseline.
† p < 0.05,
‡ p < 0.01: vs early group at baseline.
# p < 0.05,
## p < 0.01: vs early group at 12 months.