Table 3. Alterations after 12 weeks of Functional Training (FT, n=16), Traditional Training (TT, n=14) and Control Group (CG, n=15) in the maximum isometric strength, rate of force development and endurance of trunk muscles. Values presented as means and standard deviations.
Pre-test Post-test Δ (%) ES Main Effect(group) Main Effect(time) Interactions(time x group) Contrast ofadjusted mean values
Trunk Flexors Force (N)
FT 229.85 ± 58.9 281.14 ± 65.0 22% 0.87 p=0.855 p=0.045 p=0.566 p=0.002 *
TT 235.15 ± 84.4 261.36 ± 93.8 11% 0.31 p=0.108
CG 239.19 ± 59.01 252.15 ± 68.18 5% 0.22 p=0.361
Flexors’ RFD (N/s)
FT 16.0 ± 7.4 29.45 ± 17.21 84% 1.81 p=0.994 p=0.001 p=0.415 p=0.001 *
TT 18.65 ± 11.55 26.39 ±15.0 42% 0.67 p=0.033 *
CG 20.22 ± 8.77 25.51 ± 12.7 26% 0.60 p=0.09
Flexors’ Endurance (s)
FT 72.37 ± 66.94 86.18 ± 69.5 19% 0.21 p=0.294 p=0.621 p=0.221 p=0.001 *
TT 90.28 ± 81.61 100.07 ± 83.67 11% 0.12 p=0.008 *
CG 53.3 ± 46.4 57.73 ± 50.65 9% 0.10 p=0.127
Trunk Extensors Force (N)
FT 262.8 ± 72.0 306.55 ± 78.56 17% 0.61 p=0.401 p=0.135 p=0.426 p=0.003 *
TT 258.32 ± 97.1 288.10 ± 76.4 12% 0.31 p=0.059
CG 261.28 ± 61.46 257.1 ± 58.8 -1% -0.06 p=0.788
Extensors’ RFD (N/s)
FT 24.58 ±10.4 28.59 ± 9.6 16% 0.40 p=0.023 p=0.169 p=0.665 p=0.050 *
TT 25.96 ± 9.0 30.44 ± 14.7 17% 0.49 p=0.003 *
CG 21.18 ± 6.65 21.42 ± 9.6 1% 0.04 p=0.927
Extensors’ Endurance (s)
FT 106.62 ± 52,.9 121.00 ± 65.1 13% 0.27 p=0.010 p=0.509 p=0.918 p=0.017 *
TT 120.85 ± 73.3 128.7 ± 70.1 6% 0.10 p=0.226
CG 79.26 ± 46.5 81.3 ± 44.7 3% 0.04 p=0.819
* p ≤ 0.05 (statistical significance pre- to post-test).
Data analyzed from a two way ANCOVA (3-group x 2 times), ES; (Effect size); N (Newtons); RFD (Rate of force development); s (seconds);