Table 2. Changes of heart rate and parameters of arterial stiffness before and 10 min after different types of acute exercises of indoor cycling, cross-country skiing and alpine skiing. Data are mean value (± standard deviation; n = 18).
Indoor cycling Cross-country skiing Alpine skiing Repeated-measures ANOVA
Before After Change in % Before After Change in % Before After Change in % Exercise mode (p) Time (p) Exercise mode x time (p)
HR [bpm] 62(10) 85***(15) +38.4 (18.1) 64(10) 90*** (14) +43.2 (16.3) 65(10) 84***(16) +29.7 (15.0) 0.254 <0.001 <0.01
cSBP [mmHg] 115.5 (11.1) 107.5*** (11.4) -6.9(4.5) 112.2 (12.5) 110.6 (13.1) -1.2(8.6) 112.1(11.2) 112.2 (10.8) +0.3(7.1) 0.485 <0.05 <0.01
cPP [mmHg] 32.0(5.6) 29.9(6.1) -5.4 (18.2) 32.6 (5.8) 31.4(5.3) -1.9 (17.3) 32.1(6.6) 30.3(6.0) -3.7(19.7) 0.318 0.051 0.970
AIx [%] 17.3(11.4) 13.6(4.9) -4.5 (49.0) 15.3 (9.5) 15.2(7.9) +44.4 (121.1) 14.5(5.8) 15.9(6.1) +29.9 (84.0) 0.997 0.858 0.523
reflectioncoefficient [%] 63.7(8.1) 57.9**(8.2) -8.3 (13.4) 63.0 (8.7) 56.9** (8.3) -8.8 (13.5) 64.2(10.4) 62.8(6.4) -0.1(17.0) 0.070 <0.01 0.329
Pf [mmHg] 20.6(3.2) 20.1(3.7) -0.9 (18.3) 21.2 (3.1) 21.2(3.2) +0.9 (14.7) 20.7(3.0) 19.7(3.4) -4.3(14.7) 0.295 0.333 0.722
Pb [mmHg] 13.1(2.9) 11.8*(3.2) -8.8 (22.3) 13.4 (2.9) 12.1(2.7) -7.1 (20.2) 13.4(3.5) 12.4(2.7) -3.4(23.8) 0.444 <0.01 0.948
PWV [m/s] 7.15 (1.36) 6.96** (1.34) -2.6(4.1) 7.09 (1.43) 7.12 (1.47) +0.4(4.9) 7.07(1.48) 7.08(1.45) +0.4(4.0) 0.817 0.342 <0.05
AIx: augmentation index, bpm: beats per minute, cPP: central pulse pressure, cSBP: central systolic blood pressure, HR: heart rate, Pb: amplitude of the backward pressure wave, Pf: amplitude of the forward pressure wave, PWV: pulse wave velocity;
* p<.05:
** p<.01;
*** p<.001: significance level before vs. after exercise.