Table 4. Changes of heart rate and parameters of arterial stiffness during acute exercise below vs above intensities of 50% of VO2mean (valid trials pooled for indoor cycling, cross-country skiing and alpine skiing). Data are mean value (± standard deviation).
Exercise intensity <50% (n = 24) Exercise intensity ≥50% (n = 25) Repeated-measures ANOVA
Before After Change in % Before After Changein % Exerciseintensity (p) Time(p) Exercise intensity x time (p)
HR [bpm] 64(11) 83***(15) +30.6(14.0) 63(10) 88***(14) +41.4(18.4) 0.589 <0.001 <0.05
cSBP [mmHg] 113.0(11.7) 113.6 (10.8) +0.9(8.0) 113.9(12.4) 106.7***(12.4) -6.3(4.9) 0.359 <0.01 <0.001
cPP [mmHg] 32.8(6.2) 32.4(5.4) +0.8(17.9) 32.3(5.8) 29.6(5.7) -6.6(18.9) 0.255 0.087 0.178
AIx [%] 13.3(5.6) 15.3(7.7) +27.8(74.3) 17.5(11.7) 15.0(5.2) +29.3 (109.5) 0.220 0.880 0.169
reflection coefficient [%] 64.1(9.8) 61.6(7.8) -2.7(13.3) 63.8(8.1) 57.3***(7.8) -9.4(14.0) 0.290 <0.001 0.089
Pf [mmHg] 21.0(3.0) 21.3(3.3) +1.7(13.1) 20.9(3.3) 20.0(3.4) -2.9(18.0) 0.359 0.488 0.245
Pb [mmHg] 13.6(3.3) 13.1(2.6) -0.3(21.2) 13.3(2.9) 11.6**(2.9) -11.2(22.3) 0.215 <0.05 0.129
PWV [m/s] 7.16(1.44) 7.24(1.40) +1.3(3.9) 7.20(1.45) 7.03**(1.49) -2.4(3.9) 0.836 0.242 <0.01
AIx: augmentation index, bpm: beats per minute, cPP: central pulse pressure, cSBP: central systolic blood pressure, HR: heart rate, Pb: amplitude of the backward pressure wave, Pf: amplitude of the forward pressure wave, PWV: pulse wave velocity; p-value: dependent t-test or Wilcoxon-signed rank test, respectively,
* p<0.05:
** p<0.01;
*** p<0.001: significance level before vs. after exercise.