Table 1. Muscle oxygenation at baseline, and changes during time trials and recovery. Values are means (±SE).
IPC NMES AR
[HHb], μm [THb], μm TSI, % [HHb], μm [THb], μm TSI, % [HHb], μm [THb], μm TSI, %
BSTT1 29.5 (1.4)‡ 78.7 (3.2) 70.4 (2.3) 30.4 (1.5) 79.4 (3.7) 74.5 (3.3) 31.1 (1.6) 79.7 (4.2) 68.4 (2.5)
BSTT2 30.2 (1.4) 89.2 (3.7) 78.1 (1.9) 30.5 (1.6) 91.4 (4.3) 76.5 (1.2) 30.4 (1.5) 91.1 (4.4) 77.3 (0.9)
Muscle oxygenation changes during exercise and recovery (Δ)
%AO μm % %AO μm % %AO μm %
TT1 101(3)‡ 10.3 (1.4) 23.4 (2.5) 96(7) 9.4 (1.8) 27.1 (2.3) 96(5) 9.0 (1.7) 24.3 (3.0)
  R30 63.9 (5.4) 18.4 (2.4) 2.3 (3.4) 65.4 (7.0) 18.3 (2.3) 8.7 (4.0) 59.0 (7.2) 17.0 (2.4) 3.4 (3.7)
  R60 38.6 (4.1)‡ 20.1 (2.4) -5.7 (3.0) 37.3 (5.2) 21.4 (1.4) -1.0 (3.1) 29.9 (5.6) 18.2 (2.5) -5.9 (3.0)
  R90 30.3 (3.9) 21.1 (2.1) -7.9 (2.5) 23.8 (5.4) 19.5 (2.1) -2.2 (2.7) 19.8 (2.9) 19.5 (1.7) -7.8 (2.6)
  R120 26.5 (4.0)†‡ 21.4 (2.3) -7.6 (2.7) 19.7 (5.6) 19.7 (2.4) -3.3 (2.5) 14.3 (3.3) 19.5 (1.9) -8.8 (2.5)
TT2 103(4) 13.3 (1.6) 22.2 (3.3) 102(9) 12.9 (2.3) 25.7 (2.8) 98(4) 13.7 (1.8) 20.9 (2.8)
  R30 67.1 (5.5) 20.9 (2.7) 3.2 (3.7) 66.9 (8.4) 22.9 (3.1) 7.1 (3.2) 59.5 (5.2) 21.4 (2.4) 1.8 (3.4)
  R60 41.9 (4.8) 25.3 (2.8) -5.8 (2.8) 35.3 (5.5) 24.5 (2.2) -1.2 (2.9) 31.4 (5.1) 23.7 (1.6) -7.0 (2.4)
  R90 30.3 (3.7) 24.4 (2.4) -8.2 (2.7) 28.1 (5.9) 26.0 (2.2) -2.9 (2.7) 22.9 (3.6) 23.9 (1.8) -8.6 (2.6)
  R120 25.1 (3.6) 23.3 (1.9) -8.6 (2.4) 22.9 (5.2) 24.4 (1.7) -3.0 (2.6) 20.1 (4.8) 24.2 (1.2) -8.5 (2.6)
% difference within conditions (TT2 compared to TT1)
ΔBS 2.1%‡ 13.3%** 11.1%*** 0.1% 15.0%*** 3.3% -2.0% 14.6%*** 13.6%***
ΔTT 2.0% 33.8%* -9.0%* 5.5%* 55.9%** -6.7% 3.4% 45.6%* -16.7%*
ΔR30 4.8% 20.2%* 34.4%† 1.8% 17.0% -20.2% 3.6% 22.3%* -59.5%
ΔR60 9.1%† 31.2%** -2.3% -11.2%* 11.9%* -23.5% 8.7% 68.0% -17.5%
ΔR90 9.5%† 15.5%* -3.3% 12.0% 38.4%** -28.0% 14.9%* 23.3%* -10.3%
ΔR120 -15.3%* 13.1%* -12.6% 21.3%* 31.6%** 9.5% 15.0% 27.8%* 2.9%
Within-condition clear differences for changes (Δ: TT2 compared to TT1) are denoted as small (0.20-0.49, *), moderate (0.50-0.79, **), or large (≥0.80, ***). Between-condition clear differences for the TT1 and recovery period and for changes are denoted for IPC vs. NMES (†) or IPC vs. AR (‡). For small, moderate or large effects, symbols are presented in italics, bold, or underlined, respectively. Abbreviations : AR, active recovery; BS, baseline preceding TT (BSTT1, BSTT2); ES, effect size; [HHb], deoxy-hemoglobin; IPC, ischemic preconditioning; NMES, neuromuscular electrical stimulation; R(30 to 120), values after 30 to 120 sec of recovery; [THb], total haemoglobin; TSI, tissue saturation index; TT, time trial.