Table 2. Blood parameters at baseline and after time trials and recovery.
BS Post-TT1 Post-recovery Post-TT2 ΔTT2 vs. ΔTT1
Mean (SE) %D within conditions
pH IPC
NMES
AR
7.46
(0.02)
7.22 (0.01)***
7.28 (0.02)***
7.24 (0.02)***
7.44 (0.01)‡
7.44 (0.01)
7.48 (0.02)*
7.26 (0.02)***
7.31 (0.02)***
7.29 (0.02)***
0.4%*
0.7%***
0.7%***
PCO2
mmol·L-1
IPC
NMES
AR
34.7
(2.1)
29.3 (1.7)***
27.6 (1.8)***
28.0 (2.2)***
33.5 (1.6)
35.8 (1.1)*
31.7 (3.1)**
29.9 (1.2)***
27.1 (2.5)***
29.8 (1.8)***
2.9%‡
-4.0%
7.0%*
PO2
mmol·L-1
IPC
NMES
AR
86.8
(7.6)
95.5 (3.8)***
100.4 (4.0)
95.5 (4.5) **
70.3 (4.7)**
66.8 (4.2)***
81.0 (7.2)
99.8 (2.5)***
100.5 (7.3)***
94.5 (4.2)
4.2%*
-0.2%
-1.0%
[Na+]
mmol·L-1
IPC
NMES
AR
147
(1)
144(1)
144(1)*
144(1)**
144(1)**
144(1)**
146(2)
142 (1)***
144(1)**
143(1)**
-0.9%*
0.0%
-0.1%
[K+]
mmol·L-1
IPC
NMES
AR
6.98
(0.50)
5.53 (0.41)**
5.95 (0.52)*
5.80 (0.64)
6.26 (0.69)
6.04 (0.70)
6.30 (0.67)
5.08 (0.39)***
6.44 (1.01)
5.73 (0.73)*
-6.9%
7.2%
-2.6%
[Ca2+]
mmol·L-1
IPC
NMES
AR
1.22
(0.02)
1.26 (0.02)
1.22 (0.03)
1.24 (0.02)
1.19 (0.02)
1.20 (0.02)
1.19 (0.02)***
1.22 (0.01)
1.23 (0.02)
1.23 (0.02)
-2.3%
0.6%
-0.6%
[Cl-]
mmol·L-1
IPC
NMES
AR
113
(2)
112(1)
113(1)
112(2)
112(2)
110(1)
113(2)
110(1)
113(3)
113(3)
-2.5%*
-1.2%
-0.7%
[Glc]
mmol·L-1
IPC
NMES
AR
5.96
(0.30)
7.14 (0.29)***
6.42 (0.48)
6.94 (0.33)***
5.78 (0.31)
6.30 (0.35)
6.81 (0.36)**
6.18 (0.36)
5.60 (0.32)
5.97 (0.43)
-10.4%**
-15.3%***
-14.6%***
[Lact]
mmol·L-1
IPC
NMES
AR
3.50
(0.50)
14.6 (0.5)***
14.3 (0.7)***
14.6 (0.6)***
4.8 (0.4)***
4.1 (0.5)***
4.1 (0.5)***
12.5 (0.6)***
12.0 (0.8)***
12.4 (1.0)***
-11.8%*
-16.3%**
-16.6%**
Hct
%
IPC
NMES
AR
48.1
(1.3)
48.9 (0.8)†
49.8 (1.3)
49.3 (1.0)
44.0 (1.3)***
44.6 (1.2)***
44.9 (1.2)***
49.0 (1.0)
51.6 (1.6)**
49.1 (0.6)
-0.4%
3.5%*
-0.2%
[HCO3-]
mmol·L-1
IPC
NMES
AR
24.3
(0.8)
12.0 (0.8)***
12.9 (1.0)***
11.9 (0.6)***
22.7 (0.6)*
24.2 (0.3)
22.8 (1.1)**
13.3 (0.9)***
13.6 (1.3)***
14.3 (0.9)***
9.9%**
8.6%*
19.2%***
[cTCO2]
mmol·L-1
IPC
NMES
AR
25.3
(0.9)
12.9 (0.8)***
13.7 (1.0)***
12.8 (0.7)***
23.8 (0.6)*
25.3 (0.4)
23.8 (1.2)**
14.2 (1.0)***
14.4 (1.4)***
15.2 (0.9)***
9.6%**
7.7%
18.2%***
[Be(ecf)]
mmol·L-1
IPC
NMES
AR
0.4
(0.8)
-15.6 (0.9)***
-14.0 (1.2)***
-15.4 (0.6)***
-1.4 (0.5)*
0.1 (0.4)*
-0.8 (0.7)**
-13.9 (1.2)*** †‡
-12.7 (1.5)***
-12.3 (1.1)***
-10.6%**
-14.6%**
-21.3%***
[Be(b)]
mmol·L-1
IPC
NMES
AR
1.0
(0.6)
-14.1 (0.8)***
-12.2 (1.1)***
-13.7 (0.6)***
-0.6 (0.4)**
0.4 (0.4)*
0.2 (0.4)*
-12.5 (1.2)***
-10.7 (1.3)***
-10.7 (1.1)***
-11.0%**
-18.0%***
-21.8%***
cSO2
%
IPC
NMES
AR
96.2
(0.7)
95.7 (0.5)
96.8 (0.5)
95.8 (0.7)
93.6 (1.3)**
92.9 (1.2)***
95.0 (2.0)
96.5 (0.4)*
96.8 (0.5)
96.2 (0.7)
0.8%*
-0.2%
0.4%
[cHgb]
g·dL-1
IPC
NMES
AR
16.4
(0.4)
16.7 (0.3)†
17.0 (0.5)
16.8 (0.3)
14.9 (0.4)***
15.1 (0.4)***
15.3 (0.4)***
16.7 (0.3)
17.5 (0.6)**
16.8 (0.2)
-0.9%
3.1%
-0.4%
Within-condition clear differences at time point (post-TT1, post-recovery, post-TT2), compared to baseline, and for changes (Δ: TT2 compared to TT1) are denoted as small (0.20-0.49, *), moderate (0.50-0.79, **), or large (≥0.80, ***). Between-condition clear differences at time point, compared to baseline, and between changes are denoted for IPC vs. NMES (†) or IPC vs. AR (‡). For small, moderate or large effects, symbols are presented in italics, bold, or underlined, respectively. Abbreviations: AR, active recovery; Be(b), Be(ecf), base excess of blood and extracellular fluid; BS, baseline; Ca2+, ionized calcium; HCO3-, bicarbonate; cHgb, haemoglobin; Cl-, chloride; cSO2, arterial blood O2 saturation; cTCO2, total CO2; %D, percentage difference; glc, glucose; Hct, hematocrit; IPC, ischemic preconditioning; K+, potassium; lact, lactate; NMES, neuromuscular electrical stimulation; PCO2 and PO2, CO2 and O2 partial pressure.