Table 1. Characteristics of the participants.
Boys (n = 125) Girls (n = 126)
Baseline
(4th grade)
1-year
follow up
(5th grade)
2-year
follow up
(6th grade)
Baseline
(4th grade)
1-year
follow up
(5th grade)
2-year
follow up
(6th grade)
Basic characteristics
Age (years) 9.2 ±0.4 10.2 ±0.4** 11.2 ±0.4** 9.2 ±0.4 10.2±0.4** 11.2 ±0.4**
Height (cm) 134.2 ±5.7 138.8 ±6.2** 145.3 ±7.5** 133.4 ±7.4 138.9±7.3** 145.5 ±7.3**
Body mass (kg) 31.4 ±6.4 34.1 ±7.5** 38.8 ±9.2** 30.8 ±6.2 34.7±7.5** 40.0 ±9.0**
BMI (kg/m2) 17.4 ±2.8 17.6 ±3.0 18.2 ±3.2** 17.2 ±2.3 17.8±2.7** 18.7 ±3.1**
BMI-SDS 0.27 ±1.22 0.06 ±1.34** 0.11 ±1.27 0.44 ±1.09 0.39±1.17 0.44 ±1.22
Physical fitness test
Handgrip strength (kg) 14.6 ±3.5 17.1 ±4.4** 20.0 ±5.3** 13.9 ±3.1 16.7 ±4.1** 20.9 ±4.8**
Standing long jump (cm) 143.4 ±20.4 149.0 ±18.8** 160.1 ±23.6** 135.0 ±17.1 145.1 ±20.5** 153.1 ±21.2**
Bent-leg sit up (times/30s) 17.3 ±5.7 19.4 ±5.8** 19.8 ±6.1** 16.3 ±5.2 18.0 ±5.4** 18.9 ±5.3**
Ball throw (m) 19.3 ±7.3 22.9 ±7.3** 26.9 ±9.1** 12.6 ±4.6 16.1 ±5.7** 17.6 ±6.3**
50m sprinting (s) 9.8 ±1.1 9.6 ±1.3** 9.2 ±0.9** 10.2 ±0.9 9.8 ±1.0** 9.5 ±1.0**
Side-step (times/20s) 41.0 ±6.5 41.7 ±9.4 47.1 ±7.4** 39.9 ±5.9 40.9 ±7.5** 43.2 ±8.1**
20 m shuttle run (times) 40.8 ±21.5 47.0 ±23.8** 57.7 ±25.5** 30.6 ±18.2 38.1 ±20.7** 42.7 ±14.3**
Sit-and-reach (cm) 31.6 ±7.4 29.6 ±7.6 32.6 ±7.0** 34.9 ±7.5 35.5 ±7.9 39.9 ±6.7**
Fasting blood lipid concentration
Non-HDL-C (mg/dl) 102.0 ±19.9 - 103.9 ±24.9 107.3 ±20.4 - 108.1 ±20.9
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 170.5 ±23.5 - 168.4 ±28.5 173.2 ±21.5 - 170.2 ±23.4
Triglyceride (mg/dl)†† 69.1 ±45.7 - 79.0 ±56.3** 68.0 ±40.0 - 95.1 ±61.9**
HDL-C (mg/dl) 67.9 ±12.7 - 64.6 ±12.9** 65.8 ±11.1 - 62.1 ±11.6**
LDL-C (mg/dl) 88.0 ±18.6 - 88.0 ±22.4 93.4 ±17.7 - 88.9 ±20.0**
BMI: body mass index; BMI-SDS: body mass index-standard deviation score; PF: physical fitness; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
**p < 0.05 (significantly different from baseline).
† One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed.
‡ Friedman’s tests were performed.
†† Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed.