Table 2. Means (SD) of kinematics for the pivot leg at three different RHK heights during the attack period.
Variables LT MT HT F value p value
Average hip flexion (°) # 10.23 (6.36) 11.23 (5.06) 13.21 (5.50) 5.503 0.012 *
Average hip abduction (°) 14.01 (5.73) 14.00 (4.84) 17.07 (4.62) 2.485 0.141
Average hip external rotation (°) 5.63 (12.41) 6.41 (12.20) 7.13 (12.74) 2.514 0.104
Maximum hip flexion(°) 33.04 (8.17) 34.14 (5.99) 37.39 (6.97) 0.236 0.792
Maximum hip extension (°) 5.53 (6.36) 4.95 (5.17) 5.54 (5.85) 4.358 0.125
Maximum hip abduction (°) # 40.30 (4.86) 42.21 (6.17) 49.00 (5.53) 12.987 0.000**
Minimum hip abduction (°) -3.35 (6.02) -2.95 (4.96) -3.37 (5.78) 0.137 0.872
Maximum hip external rotation (°) 20.95 (11.55) 21.65 (12.51) 23.34 (12.71) 1.425 0.262
Maximum hip internal rotation (°) 5.61 (14.16) 3.68 (12.44) 3.85 (13.45) 2.067 0.150
Hip range of sagittal motion (°) 38.57 (10.47) 39.09 (8.67) 42.93 (8.53) 3.260 0.058
Hip range of frontal motion (°) #† 43.64 (8.74) 45.17 (4.01) 52.37 (4.27) 12.782 0.001**
Hip range of horizontal motion (°) 26.56 (8.33) 25.32 (8.85) 27.19 (10.94) 0.560 0.579
Average knee flexion(°) 31.40 (6.86) 31.04 (4.73) 31.22 (4.74) 0.029 0.972
Average knee valgus (°) #† 0.12 (4.00) 0.34 (3.44) 1.66 (3.56) 8.054 0.009**
Average knee external rotation (°) -7.35 (6.10) -6.83 (6.99) -6.38 (6.56) 1.939 0.168
Maximum knee flexion (°) 40.54 (6.86) 40.92 (7.29) 41.72 (6.66) 1.223 0.313
Minimum knee flexion (°) 23.63 (5.04) 22.81 (4.37) 19.12 (8.91) 1.980 0.162
Maximum knee valgus (°) #† 7.57 (4.08) 8.24 (3.27) 10.66 (2.87) 10.160 0.003 *
Maximum knee varus (°) 3.97 (4.28) 4.05 (4.26) 3.75 (4.64) 5.05 0.610
Maximum knee external rotation (°) 5.09 (8.44) 4.80 (10.12) 6.83 (7.85) 1.214 0.316
Maximum knee internal rotation (°) 16.63 (5.84) 16.00 (5.87) 15.11 (7.23) 2.464 0.108
Knee range of sagittal motion (°) † 16.91 (5.55) 18.10 (6.74) 22.61 (11.52) 3.783 0.039 *
Knee range of frontal motion (°) #† 11.54 (3.61) 12.29 (3.45) 14.42 (3.79) 7.592 0.003 *
Knee range of horizontal motion (°) 21.72 (7.46) 20.81 (8.09) 21.95 (7.28) 0.247 0.783
* p < 0.05;
** p < 0.01;
δ LT vs HT p < 0.05; MT vs HT p < 0.05; RHK, round house kicking; SD, standard deviation; LT, low height; MT, middle height; HT, high height.