Table 4. Hierarchical linear regression for the physical activity levels in physical education lessons (N = 79).
Independent variables Sitting Standing MVPA
B SE B β B SE B β B SE B β
Step 1: Demographic variables
Sports 0.32 0.09 1.23*** -0.55 0.13 -1.04*** 0.23 0.11 0.54*
Class gender -0.19 0.07 -0.55** 0.08 0.1 0.11 0.11 0.08 0.20
Teacher gender 0.14 0.07 0.53* -0.56 0.1 -1.04*** 0.42 0.08 0.97***
Venue 0.14 0.03 0.51*** -0.28 0.05 0.52*** 0.15 0.04 0.33**
Phase -0.01 0.02 -0.06 0.01 0.03 0.03 0 0.03 0
Class size -0.12 0.04 -0.86** 0.25 0.06 0.88*** -0.13 0.05 -0.57*
Attendance 0.09 0.19 0.04 0.76 0.3 0.19* -0.87 0.24 -0.26**
R .68 .83 .82
Adjusted R2 .41 .65 .64
F 8.59*** 21.91*** 20.63***
Step 2: Lesson content
General 0.38 0.12 0.29** -0.67 0.19 -0.25** 0.29 0.16 0.14
Knowledge 0.32 0.11 0.29** -0.35 0.16 -0.16* 0.04 0.14 0.02
Skill practices -0.18 0.08 -0.25* -0.12 0.13 -0.08 0.3 0.11 0.25**
Game play -0.08 0.09 -0.11 -0.4 0.14 -0.25** 0.49 0.11 0.38***
R .78 .88 .87
Adjusted R2 .54 .73 .71
F 9.31*** 20.1*** 18.43***
ΔR2 .15 .08 .08
ΔF 6.19*** 6.05*** 5.47**
Step 3: Teacher involvement
Instructs generally -0.01 0.16 -0.02 -0.44 0.24 -0.31 0.45 0.2 0.38*
Manages -0.02 0.13 -0.02 -0.09 0.19 -0.05 0.1 0.17 0.07
Observes -0.22 0.15 -0.28 0.19 0.21 0.11 0.03 0.18 0.02
R .8 .9 .89
Adjusted R2 .55 .77 .74
F 7.93*** 19.8*** 16.66***
ΔR2 .03 .05 .03
ΔF 1.74 5.11** 3.29*
MVPA = moderate to vigorous physical activity; B = unstandardized coefficients beta; SE B = standard Error for the unstandardized coefficients;
β = standardized coefficients beta;
*** p < 0.001;
** p < 0.01;
* p < 0.05.