Table 2. Substrate utilization and hormone concentrations.
Trial PRE POST0 POST120 POST240
Blood glucose
(mg/dL)
EF + CHO 86.2 ± 5.4 96.2 ± 12.6 ** 99.8 ± 11.1 ** 74.3 ± 17.3 *,††,‡‡
LF + CHO 82.8 ± 5.8 90.4 ± 11.9 ** 90.7 ± 15.4 ** 73.0 ± 12.5 *,††,‡‡
EF + MILK 85.8 ± 5.3 95.6 ± 15.1 ** 96.5 ± 14.8 ** 81.1 ± 15.2 *,††,‡‡
LF + MILK 85.4 ± 7.2 101.3 ± 16.1 ** 99.8 ± 16.0 ** 78.9 ± 9.3 *,††,‡‡
Blood lactate
(mmol/L)
EF + CHO 1.5 ± 0.3 3.7 ± 1.3 ** 2.4 ± 0.5 **,†† 2.3 ± 0.4 **,††,‡‡
LF + CHO 1.4 ± 0.2 5.0 ± 2.8 ** 2.3 ± 0.6 **,†† 2.4 ± 0.6 **,††,‡‡
EF + MILK 1.5 ± 0.4 4.4 ± 2.3 ** 2.0 ± 0.3 **,†† 1.9 ± 0.4 **,††,‡‡
LF + MILK 1.4 ± 0.3 4.6 ± 2.9 ** 1.8 ± 0.4 **,†† 2.0 ± 0.4 **,††,‡‡
Serum free fatty acids
(μEq/L)
EF + CHO 0.44 ± 0.14 1.47 ± 0.39 ** 0.13 ± 0.02 **,†† 0.08 ± 0.03 **,††,‡‡
LF + CHO 0.53 ± 0.19 1.45 ± 0.45 ** 0.13 ± 0.04 **,†† 0.09 ± 0.03 **,††,‡‡
EF + MILK 0.41 ± 0.20 1.37 ± 0.40 ** 0.19 ± 0.07 **,†† 0.13 ± 0.03 **,††,‡‡
LF + MILK 0.54 ± 0.24 1.36 ± 0.39 ** 0.18 ± 0.06 **,†† 0.13 ± 0.05 **,††,‡‡
Serum insulin
(μU/mL)
EF + CHO 5.6 ± 1.4 7.1 ± 3.8 39.8 ± 16.7 **,†† 36.7 ± 21.9 **,††
LF + CHO 4.5 ± 1.4 5.1 ± 2.7 31.8 ± 13.4 **,†† 34.1 ± 20.5 **,††
EF + MILK 4.9 ± 1.7 6.2 ± 3.6 32.2 ± 18.0 **,†† 34.3 ± 20.2 **,††
LF + MILK 5.6 ± 1.2 6.0 ± 2.9 29.8 ± 12.0 **,†† 29.8 ± 19.0 **,††
Respiratory exchange
ratio
EF + CHO 0.77 ± 0.05 0.81 ± 0.05 0.82 ± 0.02 * 0.86 ± 0.04 **,††,
LF + CHO 0.74 ± 0.05 0.80 ± 0.07 0.80 ± 0.04 * 0.85 ± 0.05 **
EF + MILK 0.77 ± 0.05 0.79 ± 0.04 0.77 ± 0.03 §§,|| 0.85 ± 0.04 **,,‡‡
LF + MILK 0.74 ± 0.04 0.81 ± 0.05 ** 0.78 ± 0.03 §§ 0.87 ± 0.09 **,‡‡
Average carbohydrate oxidation (g/min) EF + CHO 0.08 ± 0.07 0.51 ± 0.27 ** 0.13 ± 0.03 **,††,‡‡ 0.18 ± 0.05 **,††,‡‡
LF + CHO 0.05 ± 0.07 0.59 ± 0.41 ** 0.12 ± 0.06 **,††,‡‡ 0.18 ± 0.08 **,††,‡‡
EF + MILK 0.08 ± 0.06 0.51 ± 0.31 ** 0.08 ± 0.04 **,††,‡‡ 0.19 ± 0.08 **,††,‡‡
LF + MILK 0.04 ± 0.04 0.63 ± 0.25 ** 0.09 ± 0.03 **,††,‡‡ 0.20 ± 0.09 **,††,‡‡
Average fat oxidation
(g/min)
EF + CHO 0.09 ± 0.02 0.38 ± 0.21 ** 0.08 ± 0.02 †† 0.06 ± 0.02 **,††,‡‡
LF + CHO 0.10 ± 0.02 0.46 ± 0.18 ** 0.08 ± 0.02 †† 0.06 ± 0.02 **,††,‡‡
EF + MILK 0.09 ± 0.02 0.47 ± 0.18 ** 0.10 ± 0.02 †† 0.06 ± 0.02 **,††,‡‡
LF + MILK 0.10 ± 0.02 0.47 ± 0.19 ** 0.10 ± 0.02 †† 0.06 ± 0.02 **,††,‡‡
Values are mean ± SD. EF, early follicular phase; LF, late follicular phase; CHO, carbohydrate beverage; MILK, co-ingestion of carbohydrate with milk. PRE, before exercise; POST0, immediately after exercise; POST120, 120 min post-exercise; POST240, 240 min post-exercise.
*p < 0.05 vs. PRE;
**p < 0.01 vs. PRE;
†p < 0.05 vs. POST0;
††p < 0.01 vs. POST0;
‡p < 0.05 vs. POST120;
‡‡p < 0.01 vs. POST120;
§§p < 0.01 vs. EF + CHO,
||p < 0.1 vs. LF + CHO.