Table 2a. Turn performances [s] from 5 m before to 5 m and 10 m after wall contact of the eight male finalists (fastest) compared to the eight slowest male swimmers from the heats by a 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Type of turn ANOVA
BU to BA turn BA to BR turn BR to FR turn F-value P-value pη2
100 m IM 5 m in fastest 2.38 ± 0.08 3.24 ± 0.17 BU/BA 3.08 ± 0.11 BU/BA (a) F(1 | 42) = 4 0.04 0.10
slowest 2.64 ± 0.14 3.04 ± 0.26 BU/BA, BR/FR 3.33 ± 0.23 BU/BA (b) F(2 | 42) = 75 < 0.001 0.78
(c) F(2 | 42) = 9 < 0.001 0.29
5 m out fastest 2.48 ± 0.11 1.70 ± 0.10 * BU/BA, BR/FR 2.51 ± 0.09 (a) F(1 | 42) = 77 < 0.001 0.65
slowest 2.75 ± 0.16 2.63 ± 0.39 2.79 ± 0.14 (b) F(2 | 42) = 30 < 0.001 0.59
(c) F(2 | 42) = 15 < 0.001 0.41
10 m out fastest 4.97 ± 0.12 * 4.70 ± 0.33 * 5.09 ± 0.12 * (a) F(1 | 42) = 167 < 0.001 0.80
slowest 5.64 ± 0.25 6.25 ± 0.35 5.63 ± 0.21 (b) F(2 | 42) = 2 n.s.
(c) F(2 | 42) = 20 < 0.001 0.49
Total turn time fastest 7.34 ± 0.14 * 7.94 ± 0.42 * BU/BA 8.17 ± 0.15 * BU/BA (a) F(1 | 42) = 160 < 0.001 0.79
slowest 8.28 ± 0.25 9.29 ± 0.27 BU/BA 8.96 ± 0.35 BU/BA (b) F(2 | 42) = 41 < 0.001 0.66
(c) F(2 | 42) = 4 0.02 0.17
200 m IM 5 m in fastest 2.62 ± 0.14 2.93 ± 0.06 * BU/BA, BR/FR 3.29 ± 0.05 * BU/BA (a) F(1 | 42) = 78 < 0.001 0.65
slowest 2.79 ± 0.12 3.23 ± 0.14 BU/BA, BR/FR 3.72 ± 0.15 BU/BA (b) F(2 | 42) = 186 < 0.001 0.90
(c) F(2 | 42) = 5 0.02 0.18
5 m out fastest 2.61 ± 0.11 * 2.55 ± 0.14 * 2.71 ± 0.12 (a) F(1 | 42) = 55 < 0.001 0.57
slowest 2.87 ± 0.15 2.98 ± 0.18 2.92 ± 0.10 (b) F(2 | 42) = 1 n.s.
(c) F(2 | 42) = 3 n.s.
10 m out fastest 5.22 ± 0.16 * 5.77 ± 0.40 * BU/BA 5.52 ± 0.15 * (a) F(1 | 42) = 112 < 0.001 0.73
slowest 5.96 ± 0.22 6.76 ± 0.20 BU/BA, BR/FR 5.93 ± 0.16 (b) F(2 | 42) = 38 < 0.001 0.64
(c) F(2 | 42) = 6 < 0.01 0.23
Total turn time fastest 7.84 ± 0.24 * 8.70 ± 0.41 * BU/BA 8.81 ± 0.17 * BU/BA (a) F(1 | 42) = 175 < 0.001 0.81
slowest 8.75 ± 0.30 9.99 ± 0.21 BU/BA 9.65 ± 0.19 BU/BA (b) F(2 | 42) = 75 < 0.001 0.78
(c) F(2 | 42) = 3 n.s.
400 m IM 5 m in fastest 2.94 ± 0.08 3.24 ± 0.23 BU/BA 3.44 ± 0.12 * BU/BA (a) F(1 | 42) = 32 < 0.001 0.43
slowest 3.03 ± 0.1 3.39 ± 0.09 BU/BA, BR/FR 3.90 ± 0.16 BU/BA (b) F(2 | 42) = 94 < 0.001 0.82
(c) F(2 | 42) = 8 < 0.01 0.27
5 m out fastest 2.89 ± 0.15 2.76 ± 0.31 2.87 ± 0.13 (a) F(1 | 42) = 9 < 0.01 0.18
slowest 3.01 ± 0.18 3.01 ± 0.26 3.03 ± 0.12 (b) F(2 | 42) = 1 n.s.
(c) F(2 | 42) = 0 n.s.
10 m out fastest 6.00 ± 0.23 6.32 ± 0.39 BR/FR 5.80 ± 0.22 (a) F(1 | 42) = 17 < 0.001 0.29
slowest 6.25 ± 0.30 6.72 ± 0.16 BU/BA, BR/FR 6.07 ± 0.21 (b) F(2 | 42) = 21 < 0.001 0.50
(c) F(2 | 42) = 0 n.s.
Total turn time fastest 8.95 ± 0.22 9.56 ± 0.45 * BU/BA 9.24 ± 0.21 * (a) F(1 | 42) = 40 < 0.001 0.49
slowest 9.29 ± 0.32 10.11 ± 0.17 BU/BA 9.97 ± 0.31 BU/BA (b) F(2 | 42) = 25 < 0.001 0.54
(c) F(2 | 42) = 2 n.s.
IM: Individual Medley, BU: Butterfly, BA: Backstroke, BR: Breaststroke, FR Freestyle, n.s.: not significant. (a) Main effect group: fastest vs. slowest swimmers (b) Main effect type of turn: BU to BA turn vs. BA to BR turn vs. BR to FR turn (c) Interaction effect: group x type of turn Post-hoc comparisons:
* significant difference to slowest swimmers BU/BA, BA/BR, BR/FR significant difference to particular type of turn.