Table 8. Recommendations for the organization of medical support based on the analysis of the reported data and experience gained in the field.
Recommendation Description/purpose
Institution of two advanced medical facility (AMF). The medical tent (AMF 1) located near the start/finish line. A smaller one (AMF 2) located on the beach.
The constant presence of a public emergency operator in the AMF1. Monitoring the situation and activating public emergency system whenever necessary.
Adoption of management software. Updating the operative centre about the position of rescue resources along the track.
Implementation of an Advanced Command Post (ACP) along the track. The ACP should include one or two public officials as advisors for the possible intervention of firefighters or the police whenever necessary.
Sea-rescues should be optimized considering the specific features of the swimming leg. A motorboat at the centre of the swimming route should be equipped with: one emergency doctor, two nurses and two lifeguards.
A lifeguard on personal watercraft should be placed every 200 m (a total of 15 in a long-distance).
The number and professional profile of required healthcare personnel are not currently specified by the International Triathlon Union Guidelines (ITU, 2018).
The AMF 2 should be equipped with two doctors and a quad. The physicians shall leave the AMF 2 on the quad for rescue on the beach whenever necessary.
The vehicles should be moved during the fractions of the competition. During running, the quad (that was on the beach before), should be moved on the running path. One ambulance with one nurse and a driver rescuer should be located in the middle of the loop track. During the bike route, two ambulances with one nurse and a driver rescuer should be located respectively in the middle and at the end of the loop track.
20 beds should be predisposed in the AMF 1. At least one location should be reserved for red codes while the others for yellow and green codes.
A specific rescue team should be identified for most severe conditions. The team should include one physician, one nurse and one Basic Life Support Defibrillation (BLSD) volunteer rescuer. The same team should be dedicated to transfers to the hospital.
A briefing before race start and debriefing at the end of the first day of the race should be held. To define roles and responsibilities and to define planning in case of maxi-emergency. The debriefing may help to optimize the organization for the next day/event.