Table 3. Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) between the absolute differences and the individual means (n = 56).
Instrument Slow pace walking (steps) Normal pace walking (steps) Brisk pace walking (steps) Running (steps)
Criterion-related validity
Samsung Pedometer 0.08 0.16 -0.07 -0.07
Samsung Pacer -0.04 -0.11 0.03 0.15
Samsung GoogleFit -0.04 -0.02 -0.13 0.09
Apple applications a 0.10 0.16 -0.21 0.20
Fitbit Ace 2 -0.16 -0.30* -0.47 -0.52
Garmin Vivofit Jr 2 -0.08 0.21 -0.19 -0.02
Xiaomi Mi Band 5 -0.03 -0.45 -0.49 0.00
Comparability
Samsung Pedometer - Samsung Pacer 0.26 0.10 0.03 0.22
Samsung Pedometer - Samsung GoogleFit 0.26 0.11 -0.11 0.18
Samsung Pedometer - Apple applications a 0.14 0.23 -0.22 0.11
Samsung Pedometer - Fitbit Ace 2 -0.05 -0.24 -0.47 -0.51
Samsung Pedometer - Garmin Vivofit Jr 2 0.11 0.19 -0.18 -0.08
Samsung Pedometer - Xiaomi Mi Band 5 0.17 -0.41 -0.48 -0.01
Samsung Pacer - Samsung GoogleFit 0.01 0.08 -0.18 -0.06
Samsung Pacer - Apple applications a 0.07 0.11 -0.21 0.21
Samsung Pacer - Fitbit Ace 2 -0.11 -0.31* -0.45 -0.50
Samsung Pacer - Garmin Vivofit Jr 2 -0.10 0.19 -0.13 0.14
Samsung Pacer - Xiaomi Mi Band 5 0.12 -0.45 -0.47 0.15
Samsung GoogleFit - Apple applications a 0.07 0.10 -0.24 0.10
Samsung GoogleFit - Fitbit Ace 2 -0.12 -0.29* -0.41 -0.51
Samsung GoogleFit - Garmin Vivofit Jr 2 -0.12 0.14 -0.21 0.11
Samsung GoogleFit - Xiaomi Mi Band 5 0.10 -0.44 -0.47 0.11
Apple applicationsa - Fitbit Ace 2 -0.18 -0.19 -0.39 -0.52
Apple applicationsa - Garmin Vivofit Jr 2 0.15 0.23 -0.25 0.19
Apple applicationsa - Xiaomi Mi Band 5 0.21 -0.35 -0.42 0.26
Fitbit Ace 2 - Garmin Vivofit Jr 2 -0.11 -0.23 -0.45 -0.49
Fitbit Ace 2 - Xiaomi Mi Band 5 -0.07 -0.31* -0.19 -0.45
Garmin Vivofit Jr 2 - Xiaomi Mi Band 5 0.20 -0.41 -0.53 0.09
a Apple applications is referred to the three applications activated in the iPhone smartphone (i.e., Pedometer, Pacer, and Apple Health) due to the fact that all of them reported exactly the same steps scores.
* p < 0.05,
‡ p < 0.01, and
†p < 0.001