Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2016) 15, 578 - 584

Research article
Effects of Short-Term Carbohydrate Restrictive and Conventional Hypoenergetic Diets and Resistance Training on Strength Gains and Muscle Thickness
Claudia M. Meirelles1, Paulo S.C. Gomes2, 
Author Information
1 Escola de Educação Física do Exército., Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
2 Instituto de Educação Física e Desportos. Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro., Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil

Paulo S.C. Gomes
✉ .tifório Crossbridges, Instituto de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, 9° andar. Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Brasil
Publish Date
Received: 13-08-2015
Accepted: 17-08-2016
Published (online): 01-12-2016
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Hypoenergetic diets and resistance training (RT) have been suggested to be important components of weight loss strategy programs; however, there is little evidence as to the chronic effects of different macronutrient compositions on strength performance and muscle mass with RT. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of carbohydrate restrictive (CRD) and conventional (CONV) diets combined with RT on strength performance and muscle thicknesses in overweight and obese participants already involved in RT programs. Twenty-one volunteers engaged in an eight-week progressive RT program three times per week were assigned to a CRD (< 30 g carbohydrate; n = 12; 30.7 ± 3.9 km·m-2) or a CONV (30% energy deficit; 55%, 15% and 30% energy from carbohydrate, protein and fat, respectively; n=9; 27.7±2.5 km·m-2). Method: At baseline and week 8, the participants underwent body composition assessment by anthropometry, measurement of muscle thickness by ultrasound, and three strength tests using isotonic equipment. Both groups had similar reductions in body mass and fat mass as well as maintenance of fat-free mass. Muscle strength increased 14 ± 6% in the CRD group (p = 0.005) and 19 ± 9% in the CONV group (p = 0.028), with no significant differences between the groups. No significant differences were detected in muscle thicknesses within or between the groups. In conclusion, hypoenergetic diets combined with RT led to significant increases in muscle strength and were capable of maintaining muscle thicknesses in the upper and lower limbs of overweight and obese participants, regardless of the carbohydrate content of the diets.

Key words: Overweight, obesity, exercise, body composition, ultrasonography

           Key Points
  • The study deals with the effects of carbohydrate restrictive diet associated to a typical resistance training program, in obese and overweight individuals.
  • The study presents greater external validity, since it was devised in an actual fitness center setting with physically active participants enrolled in exercise programs in three fitness centers of Rio de Janeiro.
  • The study was registered at the US Clinical Trials.
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