Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine ( 2019 ) 18 , 253 - 263

Research article
The Effect of Exhaustive Exercise on Plasma Metabolic Profiles of Male and Female Rats
Wenbin Zhou1, Guigang Zeng2, Chunming Lyu3, Fang Kou1, Shen Zhang2,, Hai Wei1, 
Author Information
1 Institute of Interdisciplinary Integrative Biomedical Research, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China
2 Department of Rehabilitation, Changzheng Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003, China
3 Shanghai Zhulian Intelligent Technology CO., LTD, Shanghai 201323, China

Hai Wei
‚úČ Institute of Interdisciplinary Integrative Biomedical Research, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China
Email: wei_hai@hotmail.com
Publish Date
Received: 17-09-2018
Accepted: 11-03-2019
Published (online): 01-06-2019
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ABSTRACT

The objective of the study was to evaluate the alteration in biochemical composition and gender difference within exhaustive exercise in male and female rats using a metabolomics strategy. Sixty male and female rats were randomly assigned to control, exhaustive exercise and one-week recovery groups, respectively. The metabolic profiles of plasma were investigated by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and data further underwent orthogonal partial least-squares (OPLS) analysis. The current study found that gender was a significant determinant of the effects of exhaustive exercise on the cortisol, blood urea nitrogen, creatine kinase, and the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione, whereas, no significant interaction effects between gender and exhaustive exercise were found on the levels of testosterone, malonaldehyde, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and lactic dehydrogenase. In male rats, the altered metabolites within exhaustive exercise included increased tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates (citric acid, fumaric acid, butanedioic acid), branch-chain amino acids (valine, leucine), fatty acids and metabolite (oleic acid, linoleic acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid), phosphate and decreased glucose, lactic acid, serine, and glutamic acid. In female rats, the levels of fatty acids and metabolite (linoleic acid, oleic acid, arachidonic acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid), amino acids (valine, leucine, glutamic acid, 5-oxo-proline, methionine, ornithine), other metabolites urea, myo-inositol and phosphate were increased. The results indicated that exhaustive exercise increased the rates of energy metabolism, glucose metabolism, amino acid catabolism and fatty acid metabolism in male rats, whereas, female rats showed an increased propensity to oxidize lipid and conserve carbohydrate and protein metabolism against physical stress. Disordered urea cycle and inositol metabolism also occurred in female rats with exhaustive exercise. Exhaustive exercise affected the balance of hormone adjustment and caused oxidative stress, subsequent cell membrane damage both in male and female rats. A significant gender-related difference in the metabolic profiles was also found between male and female rats within exhaustive exercise.

Key words: Exhaustive exercise, physiology, metabolomics, plasma, gender difference


           Key Points
  • Exhaustive exercise affected hormonal balance and caused oxidative stress and subsequent cell membrane damage both in male and female rats.
  • Female rats exhibited higher antioxidant capacity at rest, but showed similar changes to the oxidative stress markers as male rats with exhaustive exercise.
  • A significant gender-based difference in the metabolic profiles was found in male and female rats within exhaustive exercise.
  • Exhaustive exercise increased the rates of the TCA cycling, glucose metabolism, amino acid catabolism and fatty acid metabolism in male rats, whereas, female rats demonstrated an increase propensity to lipid utilization and conserve carbohydrate and proteolytic metabolism.
 
 
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