Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2020) 19, 245 - 255

Research article
How Training Tools Physically Linking Soccer Players Improve Interpersonal Coordination
Keiko Yokoyama1, , Noriyuki Tabuchi2, Duarte Araújo3, Yuji Yamamoto1
Author Information
1 Research Center of Health, Physical Fitness and Sports, Nagoya University, Japan
2 Mizuno Corporation, Japan
3 CIPER, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

Keiko Yokoyama
✉ Research Center of Health, Physical Fitness and Sports, Nagoya University, JAPAN 464-8601
Publish Date
Received: 04-11-2019
Accepted: 02-02-2020
Published (online): 01-05-2020

Interpersonal coordination is an important skill for promoting collective behavior in team sports. This study tested the impact of two types of tools in facilitating triadic coordination. 16 males aged under 12 years were divided into four groups with similar skill levels and average ages. Each group performed a three-versus-one ball passing task under three conditions: a one-elastic-band tool linking the three players, a three-elastic-bands tool linking the three players, and without a tool linking the three players. The dependent variables were ball passing frequency, frequency and amplitude of inner angles of the triangle formed by the players, and duration of the synchronized patterns of the inner angles. The results show that neither tool increased ball-passing frequency or the duration of synchronized patterns. However, both tools increased the frequency of inner angles, and the three-elastic-bands tool decreased the amplitude of inner angles. From these results, we conclude that elastic-band tools affect spatial and temporal triadic formation by means of haptic and visual information. Specifically, compared with the one-elastic-band tool, the three-elastic-bands tool stabilizes the triadic spatial formation. We also explore the implications for how these tools can be used in practice.

Key words: Triadic coordination, haptic information, visual information, practical tool

           Key Points
  • We tested the two types of tools, a three-elastic-band tool and a one-elastic-band tool, both of which linked the three players together.
  • Both elastic-band tools tend to facilitate temporal organization of triadic coordination.
  • The three-elastic-bands tool tends to adjust the spatial formation to a stable equilateral triangle.
  • Tools that physically couple the players manipulate interpersonal degrees of freedom; the three-elastic-band tool allows fewer interpersonal degrees of freedom than the one-elastic-band tool.
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