Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2022) 21, 277 - 286   DOI:

Research article
Effects of Sand-Based Plyometric-Jump Training in Combination with Endurance Running on Outdoor or Treadmill Surface on Physical Fitness in Young Adult Males
Gaurav Singh1, Gaurav Singh Kushwah1, Tanvi Singh1, Rohit Kumar Thapa1, Urs Granacher2, , Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo3
Author Information
1 School of Physical Education and Sports, Rashtriya Raksha University, Gandhinagar, India
2 University of Potsdam, Division of Training and Movement Sciences, Potsdam, Germany
3 Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences Laboratory, School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile

Urs Granacher
✉ PhD University of Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, Building 12, 14469 Potsdam, Germany.
Publish Date
Received: 23-03-2022
Accepted: 06-05-2022
Published (online): 01-06-2022
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This study aimed at examining the effects of nine weeks of sand-based plyometric-jump training (PJT) combined with endurance running on either outdoor or treadmill surface on measures of physical fitness. Male participants (age, 20.1 ± 1.7 years) were randomly assigned to a sand-based PJT combined with endurance running on outdoor surface (OT, n = 25) or treadmill surface (TT, n = 25). The endurance running intervention comprised a mixed training method, i.e., long slow distance, tempo, and interval running drills. A control group was additionally included in this study (CG, n = 25). Participants in CG followed their regular physical activity as OT and TT but did not receive any specific intervention. Individuals were assessed for their 50-m linear sprint time, standing long jump (SLJ) distance, cardiorespiratory fitness (i.e., Cooper test), forced vital capacity (FVC), calf girth, and resting heart rate (RHR). A three (groups: OT, TT, CG) by two (time: pre, post) ANOVA for repeated measures was used to analyze the exercise-specific effects. In case of significant group-by-time interactions, Bonferroni adjusted paired (within-group) and independent (between-group comparisons at post) t-tests were used for post-hoc analyses. Significant group-by-time interactions were found for all dependent variables (p < 0.001 – 0.002, ɳp2 = 0.16 – 0.78). Group-specific post-hoc tests showed improvements for all variables after OT (p < 0.001, Hedges’g effect size [g] = 0.05 – 1.94) and TT (p < 0.001, g = 0.04 – 2.73), but not in the CG (p = 0.058 – 1.000, g = 0.00 – 0.34). Compared to CG, OT showed larger SLJ (p = 0.001), cardiorespiratory fitness (p = 0.004), FVC (p = 0.008), and RHR (p < 0.001) improvements. TT showed larger improvements in SLJ (p = 0.036), cardiorespiratory fitness (p < 0.001), and RHR (p < 0.001) compared with CG. Compared to OT, TT showed larger improvements for SLJ (p = 0.018). In conclusion, sand-based PJT combined with either OT or TT similarly improved most measures of physical fitness, with greater SLJ improvement after TT. Coaches may use both concurrent exercise regimes based on preferences and logistical constrains (e.g., weather; access to treadmill equipment).

Key words: Muscle strength, musculoskeletal and neural physiological phenomena, movement, resistance training, high-intensity interval training, exercise

           Key Points
  • Concurrent training in the form of sand-based plyometric-jump training and endurance running exercise can enhance physical fitness in young individuals;
  • Compared to treadmill running, rating of perceived exertion was higher in outdoor running sessions;
  • Sand-based plyometric-jump training may induce greater standing long jump performance when combined with endurance running on treadmill surface as compared to outdoor surface.
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