Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2023) 22, 36 - 43   DOI:

Research article
Inertial Sensor-Based Assessment of Static Balance in Athletes with Chronic Ankle Instability
Yuta Koshino , Moeko Akimoto, Daiki Kawahara, Kentaro Watanabe, Tomoya Ishida, Mina Samukawa, Satoshi Kasahara, Harukazu Tohyama
Author Information
Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan

Yuta Koshino
✉ PhD, PT Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, West 5, North 12, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812, Japan.
Publish Date
Received: 29-11-2022
Accepted: 29-12-2022
Published (online): 01-03-2023
Share this article

The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), a subjective examiner-based assessment, is often employed to assess postural balance in individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI); however, inertial sensors may enhance the detection of balance deficits. This study aimed to compare the BESS results between the CAI and healthy groups using conventional BESS scores and inertial sensor data. The BESS test (six conditions: double-leg, single-leg, and tandem stances on firm and foam surfaces, respectively) was performed for the CAI (n = 16) and healthy control (n = 16) groups with inertial sensors mounted on the sacrum and anterior shank. The BESS score was calculated visually by the examiner by counting postural sway as an error based on the recorded video. The root mean square for resultant acceleration (RMSacc) in the anteroposterior, mediolateral, and vertical directions was calculated from each inertial sensor affixed to the sacral and shank surfaces during the BESS test. The mixed-effects analysis of variance and unpaired t-test were used to assess the effects of group and condition on the BESS scores and RMSacc. No significant between-group differences were found in the RMSacc of the sacral and shank surfaces, and the BESS scores (P > 0.05), except for the total BESS score in the foam condition (CAI: 14.4 ± 3.7, control: 11.7 ± 3.4; P = 0.039). Significant main effects of the conditions were found with respect to the BESS scores and RMSacc for the sacral and anterior shank (P < 0.05). The BESS test with inertial sensors can detect differences in the BESS conditions for athletes with CAI. However, our method could not detect any differences between the CAI and healthy groups.

Key words: Wearable sensor, Balance Error Scoring System, postural control, postural stability, ankle sprain

           Key Points
  • This study compared the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) for the chronic ankle instability (CAI) and control groups using conventional scores obtained from the examiner's visual assessment and RMS values of acceleration data obtained from the inertial sensors attached to the sacrum and shank.
  • Significant differences were found in the BESS scores obtained on the foam surface between the CAI and control groups
  • No significant group differences in the inertial sensor-based assessment of the sacrum or tibia.
  • For the BESS scores and RMS values of acceleration data, we found a significant main effect of condition in the BESS.
  • Our hypothesis that the inertial sensor BESS assessment would detect more group differences than those with the BESS score was disproved.
Home Issues About Authors
Contact Current Editorial board Authors instructions
Email alerts In Press Mission For Reviewers
Archive Scope
Supplements Statistics
Most Read Articles
  Most Cited Articles
JSSM | Copyright 2001-2023 | All rights reserved. | LEGAL NOTICES | Publisher

It is forbidden the total or partial reproduction of this web site and the published materials, the treatment of its database, any kind of transition and for any means, either electronic, mechanic or other methods, without the previous written permission of the JSSM.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.