Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2023) 22, 382 - 388   DOI:

Research article
Lower Body Joint Moments during the Golf Swing in Older Adults: Comparison to Other Activities of Daily Living
Scott K. Lynn1,4, , Junsig Wang2,4, Abigail C. Schmitt3,4, C. Lowry Barnes4
Author Information
1 California State University – Fullerton, Fullerton, CA, USA
2 Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
3 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA
4 Hip Knee Arkansas Foundation, Little Rock, AR, USA

Scott K. Lynn
✉ California State University, Fullerton, Department of Kinesiology/Center for Sport Performance, 800 N. State College Blvd., Fullerton, CA, USA, 92831.
Publish Date
Received: 28-02-2023
Accepted: 30-05-2023
Published (online): 01-09-2023

Golf participation has increased dramatically in the last several years. With this increase in participation, clinicians need better evidenced based strategies to advise those golfers with different pathologies when it is safe to return to the game. Golf teaching professionals also need to understand how to alter golf mechanics to protect injured and/or diseased joints in golfers to allow them to play pain free and avoid further injury. This study used a 3-dimensional link segment model to calculate the net joint moments on the large lower limb joints (knee and hip) during golf (lead and trail leg) and two commonly studied activities of daily living (gait and sit-to-stand) in 22 males, healthy, adult golfers. It also examined the correlations between these knee and hip joint loads and club head speed. The external valgus knee moment and the internal hip adduction moment were greater in the lead leg in golf than in the other activities and were also correlated with club head speed. This indicates a strategy of using the frontal plane GRF moment during the swing. The internal hip extension and knee flexion moment were also greater in the golf swing as compared with the other activities and the hip extension moment was also correlated with club head speed. This emphasizes the importance of hip extensor (i.e., gluteus maximus and hamstring) muscle function in golfers, especially in those emphasizing the use of anterior-posterior ground reaction forces (i.e., the pivoting moment). The golf swing places some loads on the knee and the hip that are much different than the loads during gait and sit-to-stand tasks. Knowledge of these golf swing loads can help both the clinician and golf professional provide better evidence-based advice to golfers in order to keep them healthy and avoid future pain/injury.

Key words: Golf biomechanics, hip joint moments, knee joint moments, club head speed, gait, sit-to-stand

           Key Points
  • Several joint moments during the golf swing on the lead side (external knee valgus, hip adduction, hip extension) and the trail side (knee flexion, hip adduction, hip extension) were greater than the moments on the joints during gait and sit-to-stand.
  • Several joint moments during the golf swing on the lead side (external knee valgus, hip adduction, hip extension) and on the trail side (hip flexion) were correlated to club head speed.
  • Knowledge of the loading of the joints during the golf swing can help clinicians and golf professionals better advise golfers in ensuring their safe participation in this lifetime sport.
Home Issues About Authors
Contact Current Editorial board Authors instructions
Email alerts In Press Mission For Reviewers
Archive Scope
Supplements Statistics
Most Read Articles
  Most Cited Articles
JSSM | Copyright 2001-2024 | All rights reserved. | LEGAL NOTICES | Publisher

It is forbidden the total or partial reproduction of this web site and the published materials, the treatment of its database, any kind of transition and for any means, either electronic, mechanic or other methods, without the previous written permission of the JSSM.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.