Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2023) 22, 389 - 396   DOI: https://doi.org/10.52082/jssm.2023.389

Research article
Comparison of Isolated or Combined Static Stretching and Foam Rolling on Knee Extensors’ Function
Kazuki Kasahara1, Andreas Konrad2, Riku Yoshida1, Yuta Murakami1, Shigeru Sato1, Ryoma Koizumi3, David G Behm4, Masatoshi Nakamura5, 
Author Information
1 Institute for Human Movement and Medical Sciences, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, Japan
2 Institute of Human Movement Science, Sport and Health, University of Graz, Graz, Austria
3 Department of Physical Therapy, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, Japan
4 School of Human Kinetics and Recreation, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
5 Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Nishi Kyushu University, 4490-9 Ozaki, Kanzaki, Saga, 842-8585, Japan

Masatoshi Nakamura
✉ Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Nishi Kyushu University, 4490-9 Ozaki, Kanzaki, Saga, 842-8585, Japan
Email: nakamuramas@nisikyu-u.ac.jp
Publish Date
Received: 27-03-2023
Accepted: 08-06-2023
Published (online): 01-09-2023
 
 
ABSTRACT

Static stretching (SS), foam rolling (FR), and a combination of both are used as warm-ups for sports and training. However, no reports have compared or examined the warm-up effects of short-term interventions (i.e., 30-s). Therefore, this study was designed to compare and examine the effects of short-term SS, FR, and SS+FR on knee extensors. The dominant knee extensors of 14 male university students (22.0 ± 1.3 years old) were tested. Five conditions were randomized: 60-s SS, 60-s FR, 30-s SS+ 30-s FR, 30-s SS, and 30-s FR to examine differences in intervention method, duration, and combined. The measures were knee flexion range of motion (ROM), pain pressure threshold (PPT), tissue hardness, maximum voluntary contraction-isometric (MVC-ISO), and MVC-concentric (MVC-CON) torques, measured before and after the intervention. Knee flexion ROM (d = 0.40, d = 0.59, d = 0.54, d = 0.59, d = 0.52 respectively) and PPT (d = 0.77, d = 0.60, d = 0.90, d = 0.74, d = 0.52, respectively) were significantly increased (p < 0.01), and tissue hardness (d = -0.79, d = -0.63, d = -0.53, d = -0.59, d = -0.72, respectively) was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) in all conditions. However, MVC-ISO decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in the 60-s SS and 30-s SS conditions but did not affect MVC-CON in all conditions. The results of this study revealed that SS, FR, and SS+FR interventions for a short-term as a warm-up before exercise were effective in increasing ROM, PPT, and decreasing tissue hardness. However, SS intervention with more than 30-s on the knee extensors decreased muscle strength, so short-term FR intervention is recommended when the goal is to increase ROM while maintaining both MVC-ISO and MVC-CON torques. Similarly, a short-term FR intervention after a short-term SS can eliminate the effect of strength impairments.

Key words: Warm-up, flexibility, range of motion, muscle strength


           Key Points
  • We investigated the compare and examine the effects of short-term static stretching (SS), foam rolling (FR), and SS+FR on knee extensors.
  • Five conditions were randomized: 60-s SS, 60-s FR, 30-s SS+ 30-s FR, 30-s SS, and 30-s FR to examine differences in intervention method, duration, and combined.
  • The measures were knee flexion range of motion (ROM), pain pressure threshold (PPT), tissue hardness, maximum voluntary contraction-isometric (MVC-ISO), and MVC-concentric (MVC-CON) torques, measured before and after the intervention.
  • Short-term FR intervention is recommended when the goal is to increase ROM while maintaining MVC-ISO and MVC-CON torques.
  • Similarly, a short-term FR intervention after a short-term SS can eliminate the effect of MVC-ISO torque impairments.
 
 
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