Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2023) 22, 447 - 454   DOI:

Research article
Effects of Maximal Eccentric Trunk Extensor Exercise on Lumbar Extramuscular Connective Tissue: A Matched-Pairs Ultrasound Study
Andreas Brandl1,2,3, Jan Wilke4, Christoph Egner2, Tobias Schmidt5,6,†, Robert Schleip2,7,†, 
Author Information
1 Department of Sports Medicine, Institute for Human Movement Science, Faculty for Psychology and Human Movement Science, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
2 Department for Medical Professions, Diploma Hochschule, Bad Sooden-Allendorf, Germany
3 Vienna School of Osteopathy, Vienna, Austria
4 Department of Movement Sciences, University of Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt, Austria
5 Osteopathic Research Institute, Hamburg, Germany
6 Institute of Interdisciplinary Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, MSH Medical School Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
7 Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Conservative and Rehabilitative Orthopedics, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
† These authors contributed equally to this work

Robert Schleip
✉ Department for Medical Professions, Diploma Hochschule, Bad Sooden-Allendorf, Germany
Publish Date
Received: 23-05-2023
Accepted: 31-07-2023
Published (online): 01-09-2023
Share this article

Recently, it has been shown that the extramuscular connective tissue (ECT) is likely involved in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maximal trunk extension eccentric exercise (EE) on ECT thickness, self-reported DOMS, ECT stiffness, skin temperature, and possible correlations between these outcomes. Healthy adults (n = 16, 29.34 ± 9.87 years) performed fatiguing EE of the trunk. A group of highly active individuals (TR, n = 8, > 14 h of sport per week) was compared with a group of less active individuals (UTR, n = 8, < 2 h of sport per week). Ultrasound measurements of ECT thickness, stiffness with MyotonPro and IndentoPro, skin temperature with infrared thermography, and pain on palpation (100 mm visual analog scale, VAS) as a surrogate for DOMS were recorded before (t0), immediately (t1), 24 h (t24), and 48 h (t48) after EE. ECT thickness increased after EE from t0 to t24 (5.96 mm to 7.10 mm, p = 0.007) and from t0 to t48 (5.96 mm to 7.21 mm, p < 0.001). VAS also increased from t0 to t24 (15.6 mm to 23.8 mm, p < 0.001) and from t0 to t48 (15.6 mm to 22.8 mm, p < 0.001). Skin temperature increased from t1 to t24 (31.6° Celsius to 32.7° Celsius, p = 0.032) and t1 to t48 (31.6° Celsius to 32.9° Celsius, p = 0.003), while stiffness remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Correlation analysis revealed no linear relationship between the outcomes within the 48-hour measurement period. The results may confirm previous findings of possible ECT involvement in the genesis of DOMS in the extremities also for the paraspinal ECT of trunk extensors. Subsequent work should focus on possible interventions targeting the ECT to prevent or reduce DOMS after strenuous muscle EE.

Key words: DOMS, ultrasound, connective tissue, eccentric exercise

           Key Points
  • Eccentric exercise increases the thickness of lumbar extramuscular connective tissue.
  • The results may confirm previous findings on the involvement of fascia in DOMS.
  • A focus on fascial interventions for prevention or reduction of DOMS could be promising.
Home Issues About Authors
Contact Current Editorial board Authors instructions
Email alerts In Press Mission For Reviewers
Archive Scope
Supplements Statistics
Most Read Articles
  Most Cited Articles
JSSM | Copyright 2001-2023 | All rights reserved. | LEGAL NOTICES | Publisher

It is forbidden the total or partial reproduction of this web site and the published materials, the treatment of its database, any kind of transition and for any means, either electronic, mechanic or other methods, without the previous written permission of the JSSM.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.