Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2024) 23, 236 - 257   DOI: https://doi.org/10.52082/jssm.2024.236

Review article
Genetics of Exercise and Diet-Induced Fat Loss Efficiency: A Systematic Review
Aleksandra Bojarczuk1, , Emiliya S. Egorova2, Magdalena Dzitkowska-Zabielska1, Ildus I. Ahmetov2,3,4,5
Author Information
1 Faculty of Physical Culture, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Gdansk, Poland
2 Laboratory of Genetics of Aging and Longevity, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russia
3 Sports Genetics Laboratory, St Petersburg Research Institute of Physical Culture, St. Petersburg, Russia
4 Center for Phygital Education and Innovative Sports Technologies, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow, Russia
5 Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK

Aleksandra Bojarczuk
‚úČ Faculty of Physical Culture, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, 80-336 Gdansk, Poland
Email: aleksandra.bojarczuk@awf.gda.pl
Publish Date
Received: 08-01-2024
Accepted: 21-02-2024
Published (online): 01-03-2024
 
 
ABSTRACT

Physical exercise and dieting are well-known and effective methods for fat loss and improving cardiovascular health. However, different individuals often react differently to the same exercise regimen or dietary plan. While specific individuals may undergo substantial fat loss, others may observe only limited effects. A wide range of inter-individual variability in weight gain and changes in body composition induced by physical exercises and diets led to an investigation into the genetic factors that may contribute to the individual variations in such responses. This systematic review aimed at identifying the genetic markers associated with fat loss resulting from diet or exercise. A search of the current literature was performed using the PubMed database. Forty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria when assessing genetic markers associated with weight loss efficiency in response to different types of exercises and diets. Overall, we identified 30 genetic markers of fat-loss efficiency in response to different kinds of diets and 24 in response to exercise. Most studies (n = 46) used the candidate gene approach. We should aspire to the customized selection of exercise and dietary plans for each individual to prevent and treat obesity.

Key words: SNP, physical activity, weight loss, dieting


           Key Points
  • Inter-individual differences play a crucial role in determining body weight and shaping the body's response to changes in diet and engagement in physical activity.
  • The review identified 30 genetic markers associated with fat-loss efficiency in response to various diets and 24 markers in response to exercise.
  • In the future, the focus should be on tailoring the choice of diet and exercise types to individual genetic characteristics to prevent and treat obesity.
 
 
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