Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
from September 2014
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2009) 08, 252 - 258

Research article
Initial Metabolic State and Exercise-Induced Endotoxaemia Are Unrelated to Gastrointestinal Symptoms During Exercise
José Moncada-Jimènez1, , Eric P. Plaisance2, Michael L. Mestek2, Felipe Araya-Ramirez2, Lance Ratcliff3, James K. Taylor4, Peter W. Grandjean2, Luis F. Aragonvargas1,5
Author Information
1 School of Physical Education and Sports, Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica
2 Department of Kinesiology,
3 Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Auburn University, AL, USA
4 Division of Clinical Laboratory Science, Auburn University-Montgomery, Montgomery, AL, USA
5 The Gatorade Sports Science Institute, Barrington, IL, USA

José Moncada-Jimènez
✉ P.O. Box 239-1200, San José, Costa Rica.
Publish Date
Received: 13-10-2008
Accepted: 23-03-2009
Published (online): 01-06-2009

The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the initial metabolic state and exercise-induced endotoxaemia on the appearance of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) during exercise. Eleven males (36.6 ± 4.9 yrs, 1.7 ± 0.1 m, 74.5 ± 7.7 kg, DEXA body fat % 17.2 ± 6.6, VO2max 57.4 ± 7.4 ml·kg-1·min-1) underwent two isoenergetic diets designed to change their initial metabolic status by either depleting or maintaining their hepatic and muscular glycogen content. These diets and accompanying exercise sessions were performed by each participant in the days before completing a laboratory-based duathlon (5-km run, 30-km cycling, 10-km run). Blood samples were obtained before, immediately and 1- and 2-h following the duathlon for determination of insulin (IN), glucagon (GL), endotoxin, aspartic aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) markers. GIS were assessed by survey before and after exercise. Diet content produced a different energy status as determined by macronutrient content and the IN/GL ratio (p < 0.05), and mild exercise-induced endotoxaemia was observed in both experimental duathlons. Regardless of the diet, the AST/ALT ratio following exercise and in the recovery phase indicated hepatocyte and liver parenchyma structural damage. In spite of GIS, no significant correlations between endotoxin levels and GIS were found. In conclusion, increased markers of endotoxaemia observed with the high-intensity exercise were unrelated to hepatic function and/or GIS before and after exercise.

Key words: Liver structure, endurance, lipopolysaccharide, endotoxaemia, exercise

           Key Points
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms before, during, and after a competition are reported by approximately 20%-50% of the athletes participating in endurance events such as marathon, cycling and triathlon.
  • Energy status, exercise-induced endotoxaemia and liver structural damage might be related to gastrointestinal symptoms.
  • In this study, gastrointestinal symptoms observed before and after endurance exercise were unrelated to endotoxin levels or hepatic structural damage.
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