Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2014) 13, 817 - 822

Research article
Hydration Status and Fluid Balance of Elite European Youth Soccer Players during Consecutive Training Sessions
Shaun M. Phillips1, , Dave Sykes2, Neil Gibson2
Author Information
1 Abertay University, Division of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Dundee, Scotland
2 Heart of Midlothian Football Academy, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland

Shaun M. Phillips
✉ Abertay University, Division of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Bell Street, Dundee, DD11HG, Scotland
Email: S.Phillips@abertay.ac.uk
Publish Date
Received: 03-04-2014
Accepted: 01-08-2014
Published (online): 01-12-2014
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ABSTRACT

The objective of the study was to investigate the hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during three consecutive training sessions. Fourteen males (age 16.9 ± 0.8 years, height 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass (BM) 70.6 ± 5.0 kg) had their hydration status assessed from first morning urine samples (baseline) and pre- and post-training using urine specific gravity (USG) measures, and their fluid balance calculated from pre- to post-training BM change, corrected for fluid intake and urine output. Most participants were hypohydrated upon waking (USG >1.020; 77% on days 1 and 3, and 62% on day 2). There was no significant difference between first morning and pre-training USG (p = 0.11) and no influence of training session (p = 0.34) or time (pre- vs. post-training; p = 0.16) on USG. Significant BM loss occurred in sessions 1-3 (0.69 ± 0.22, 0.42 ± 0.25, and 0.38 ± 0.30 kg respectively, p < 0.05). Mean fluid intake in sessions 1-3 was 425 ± 185, 355 ± 161, and 247 ± 157 ml, respectively (p < 0.05). Participants replaced on average 71.3 ± 64.1% (range 0-363.6%) of fluid losses across the three sessions. Body mass loss, fluid intake, and USG measures showed large inter-individual variation. Elite young European soccer players likely wake and present for training hypohydrated, when a USG threshold of 1.020 is applied. When training in a cool environment with ad libitum access to fluid, replacing ~71% of sweat losses results in minimal hypohydration (<1% BM). Consumption of fluid ad libitum throughout training appears to prevent excessive (≥2% BM) dehydration, as advised by current fluid intake guidelines. Current fluid intake guidelines appear applicable for elite European youth soccer players training in a cool environment.

Key words: Specific gravity, exercise, urine, adolescent


           Key Points
  • The paper demonstrates a notable inter-participant variation in first morning, pre- and post-training hydration status and fluid balance of elite young European soccer players.
  • On average, elite young European soccer players are hypohydrated upon waking and remain hypohydrated before and after training.
  • Elite young European soccer players display varied fluid intake volumes during training, but on average do not consume sufficient fluid to offset fluid losses.
  • Consecutive training sessions do not significantly impair hydration status, suggesting that elite young European soccer players consume sufficient fluid between training to maintain a stable hydration status and prevent excessive (≥2% body mass) dehydration
  • Current fluid intake guidelines appear applicable to this population when training in a cool environment
 
 
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