Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2015) 14, 110 - 117

Research article
Shaping Physiological Indices, Swimming Technique, and Their Influence on 200m Breaststroke Race in Young Swimmers
Marek Strzala1, , Arkadiusz Stanula2, Grzegorz Głab3, Jacek Glodzik3, Andrzej Ostrowski1, Marcin Kaca1, Leszek Nosiadek4
Author Information
1 Department of Water Sports, University School of Physical Education, Cracow, Poland
2 Department of Sports Training, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education, Katowice, Poland
3 Department of Physiotherapy, University School of Physical Education, Cracow, Poland
4 Department of Biomechanics, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, University School of Physical Education, Cracow, Poland

Marek Strzala
✉ University School of Physical Education, Department of Water Sports, al. Jana Pawła II 78, 31-571, Cracow, Poland
Publish Date
Received: 03-04-2014
Accepted: 29-10-2014
Published (online): 01-03-2015
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The aim of this study was to investigate somatic properties and physiological capacity, and analyze kinematic parameters in the 200 m breaststroke swimming race. Twenty-seven male swimmers participated in the study. They were 15.7±1.98 years old. Their average height was 1.80 ± 0.02 m and lean body mass (LBM) was 62.45 ± 8.29 kg. Physiological exercise capacity was measured in two separate 90 sec. all-out tests, one for the arms and second for legs. During the tests total work of arm cranking (TWAR) and cycling (TWLG) as well as peak of VO2 for arm (VO2peakAR) and leg (VO2peakLG) were measured. The underwater swimmers body movements were recorded during the all-out swimming 200m breaststroke speed test using an underwater camera installed on a portable trolley. The swimming kinematic parameters and propulsive or non-propulsive movement phases of the arms and legs as well as average speed (V200), surface speed (V200surface) and swimming speed in turn zones (V200turns) were extracted. V200surface was significantly related to the percentage of leg propulsion and was shown to have large effect on VO2peakLG in the Cohen analysis. V200turns depended significantly on the indicators of physiological performance and body structure: TWAR, VO2peak LG and LBM, LBM, which in turn strongly determined the measured results of TWAR, TWLG, VO2peakAR and VO2peakLG. The V200turns and V200surface were strongly associated with V200, 0.92, p < 0.001 and 0.91, p < 0.001 respectively. In each lap of the 200m swimming there was an increased percentage of propulsion of limb movement observed simultaneously with a reduction in the gliding phase in the breaststroke cycles.

Key words: Breaststroke swimming, physiological indices, lean body mass, kinematic indices

           Key Points
  • This study investigated the influence of the selected indicators of somatic properties and physiological capacity as well kinematic and coordination parameters on breaststroke swimming.
  • In this observations the body’s functional capacity have an important impact on achieving good breaststroke swimming results, the V200 was moderately associated on VO2peakLG, moreover, separate V200turns depended with VO2peakLG and on LBM and TWAR.
  • The speed of surface breaststroke swimming - V200surface similarly as V200turns had a very strong influence on the end result of V200 0.91, p<0.001 and 0.92, p<0.001 respectively.
  • The ability to swim fast on the surface (V200surface) was positively and significantly associated with the percentage time of propulsion generation -LP in the breaststroke cycle.
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