Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Views
9792
Download
54
 
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine ( 2015 ) 14 , 246 - 255

Research article
Difference Between Adolescent and Collegiate Baseball Pitchers in the Kinematics and Kinetics of the Lower Limbs and Trunk During Pitching Motion
Masahiro Kageyama1, Takashi Sugiyama1, Hiroaki Kanehisa2, Akira Maeda2, 
Author Information
1 Graduate School of Physical Education, National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya, Kagoshima, Japan
2 National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya, Kagoshima, Japan

Akira Maeda
✉ National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya, 1 Shiromizu, Kanoya, Kagoshima 891-2393, Japan
Email: amaeda@nifs-k.ac.jp
Publish Date
Received: 25-08-2014
Accepted: 06-01-2015
Published (online): 01-06-2015
Share this article
 
 
ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to clarify the differences between adolescent and collegiate baseball pitchers in the kinematic and kinetic profiles of the trunk and lower limbs during the pitching motion. The subjects were thirty-two adolescent baseball pitchers aged 12-15 years (APG) and thirty collegiate baseball pitchers aged 18-22 years (CPG). Three-dimensional motion analysis with a comprehensive lower-extremity model was used to evaluate kinematic and kinetic parameters during baseball pitching. The ground reaction forces (GRFs) of the pivot and stride legs during pitching were determined using two multicomponent force plates. The joint torques of hip, knee, and ankle were calculated by the inverse-dynamics computation of musculoskeletal human models using motion-capture data. To eliminate any effect of variation in body size, kinetic and GRFs data were normalized by dividing them by body mass. The velocity of a pitched ball was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in CPG (35.2 ± 1.9 m·s-1) than in the APG (30.7 ± 2.7 m·s-1). Most kinematic parameters for the lower limbs were similar between the CPG and the APG. Maximum Fy (toward the throwing direction) on the pivot leg and Fy and resultant forces on the stride leg at ball release were significantly greater in the CPG than in the APG (p < 0.05). Hip and knee joint torques on the lower limbs were significantly greater in the CPG than in the APG (p < 0.05). The present study indicates that the kinematics of lower limbs during baseball pitching are similar between adolescent and collegiate pitchers, but the momentum of the lower limbs during pitching is lower in adolescent pitchers than in collegiate ones, even when the difference in body mass is considered.

Key words: Pitching ball velocity, the open kinetic chain, joint moment, ground-reaction force, motion analysis


           Key Points
  • Collegiate baseball pitchers can generate the hip and knee joint torques on the pivot leg for accelerating the body forward.
  • Collegiate baseball pitchers can generate the hip and knee joint torques to control/stabilize the stride leg in order to increase momentum on the stride leg during the arm acceleration phase.
  • The kinematics of the lower limbs during baseball pitching are similar between adolescent and collegiate pitchers, but the momentum of the lower limbs during pitching is lower in adolescent pitchers than in collegiate ones, even when the difference in body mass is considered.
  • Adolescent baseball pitchers cannot generate the hip and knee joint torques in the pivot and stride leg for transfer of the energy of trunk and the arm.
 
 
Home Issues About Authors
Contact Current Editorial board Authors instructions
Email alerts In Press Mission For Reviewers
Archive Scope
Supplements Statistics
Most Read Articles
  Most Cited Articles
 
    
 
JSSM | Copyright 2001-2019 | All rights reserved. | LEGAL NOTICES | Publisher

It is forbidden the total or partial reproduction of this web site and the published materials, the treatment of its database, any kind of transition and for any means, either electronic, mechanic or other methods, without the previous written permission of the JSSM.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.