Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine ( 2018 ) 17 , 571 - 579

Research article
Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) and Body Mass Changes in an Ultra-Endurance Triathlon Event
Jorge Castizo-Olier1,2, Marta Carrasco-Marginet1,2, Alex Roy1, Diego Chaverri1,2, Xavier Iglesias1,2, Carla Pérez-Chirinos1, Ferran Rodríguez1,2, Alfredo Irurtia1,2, 
Author Information
1 Institut Nacional d’Educació Física de Catalunya (INEFC), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Barcelona, Spain
2 INEFC-Barcelona Sport Sciences Research Group, Barcelona, Spain

Alfredo Irurtia
✉ INEFC-Barcelona Sport Sciences Research Group, Institut Nacional d’Educació Física de Catalunya (INEFC), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Avinguda de l’Estadi, 12-22, 08038, Barcelona, Spain
Email: airurtia@gencat.cat
Publish Date
Received: 24-05-2018
Accepted: 05-09-2018
Published (online): 20-11-2018
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ABSTRACT

This study aimed to provide the first description of the whole-body bioimpedance vector of nine non-professional triathletes, and to assess body mass (BM) and vector variations evoked by an ultra-endurance triathlon event. Anthropometric and bioelectrical assessments were performed before (PRE), after (POST), and 48 hours following the race (POST48h). Bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA) showed triathletes’ vectors placed to the left of the major axis and mostly outside the 50% tolerance ellipse of the reference population. Vector migration in POST indicated dehydration, paralleled by a decrease in BM (p = 0.0001). Increased hydration status from POST to POST48h was suggested by a reversed vector migration and increased BM (p = 0.0001). Compared to PRE, POST48h values reflected fluid retention by changes in BIVA, while BM was still lower (p = 0.0001). Racing time was positively related to basal resistance -R/h- (r = 0.68; p = 0.04) and bioimpedance -Z/h- (r = 0.68; p = 0.045). Besides, basal R/h and Z/h were positively related to PRE-to-POST changes of R/h and Z/h (r = 0.80; p = 0.009). PRE-to-POST changes of R/h and Z/h were positively related to racing time (r = 0.80, p = 0.01) and internal workload (r = 0.80, p ≤ 0.02). Notwithstanding the lack of significant correlation between BM and bioelectrical parameters, the vector’s behavior was explained from a multifactorial perspective (including BM variations) by using multiple regression analysis. On the other hand, BM changes were not related to racing time, internal workload or energy deficit (ranges: r = - 0.46 to 0.65; p = 0.06 to 0.98). In conclusion, these triathletes exhibit a specific bioelectrical distribution. Furthermore, vector migration was consistent with fluid loss induced by the event. Finally, vector analysis seems to provide additional information about hydration changes 48h after the event in comparison with BM alone.

Key words: Body composition, hydration, bioimpedance, BIVA, performance, triathlon


           Key Points
  • BIVA shows a specific bioelectrical distribution in a group of triathletes in comparison with the healthy, general reference population.
  • Although BIVA is not currently able to identify type and magnitude of fluid loss, vector migration appears to be consistent with fluid loss induced by a UET event and with fluid retention 48 h after the race.
  • BIVA seems to provide additional information about hydration changes 48 h after the UET event compared with BM alone. However, it is important to highlight that neither BM nor BIVA can really identify what happened to TBW. BIVA reflect changes in ECW estimates only. Thus, ICW may still be reduced (captured by BM 48h post-race) with a migration of fluids to the ECW space.
  • This method could be sensitive to different performance levels between triathletes and to muscle disruption 48 hours after completing a UET event.
 
 
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