Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2019) 18, 301 - 315

Research article
Prior Band-Resisted Squat Jumps Improves Running and Neuromuscular Performance in Middle-Distance Runners
Jonathan L. Low1, Hamid Ahmadi1, Liam P. Kelly2, Jeffrey Willardson3, Daniel Boullosa4,5, David G. Behm1, 
Author Information
1 School of Human Kinetics and Recreation, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada
2 Recovery and Performance Lab, Faculty of Medicine, L.A. Miller Center, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada
3 Department of Health and Human Performance, Montana State University, Billings, Montana, USA
4 Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil
5 College of Healthcare Sciences, James Cook University, QLD, Australia

David G. Behm
✉ PhD School of Human Kinetics and Recreation, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada, A1M 3L8
Publish Date
Received: 12-03-2019
Accepted: 16-04-2019
Published (online): 01-06-2019

Post-activation potentiation (PAP) conditioning has been reported to increase performance. Most research has examined PAP effects on strength/power activities, whereas the effects on endurance sports are understudied. The aim of this study was to characterize PAP conditioning stimulus effects on a subsequent 5x1 km running trial. A randomized, within subjects, repeated measures study utilized 12 male, endurance-trained athletes, who performed a full warm-up, conditioning exercise intervention (4x5 repetition maximum band-resisted squat jumps) or a control condition prior to a 5x1 km time trial run. Tests were conducted immediately prior to the intervention, after each kilometer, immediately following the 5x1 km run, and at seven and ten minutes post 5 km run. Measures included the interpolated twitch technique (ITT), evoked contractile properties, maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) plantar flexor force, drop jump, rating of perceived exertion, and heart rate. The PAP stimulus reduced the time to complete the run (3.6%; p = 0.07, d = 0.51), and decreased the time to complete kilometer one (8%; d = 1.08, p = 0.014). Jump height (p = 0.02; 9.2%) and reactive strength index (p = 0.035; 16%) increased with PAP. F100 (force produced in the first 100ms of the MVIC) and MVIC force with PAP increased at kilometers 3 (p = 0.04, d=0.84), 4 (p = 0.034, d = 0.29), and 7min post-run (p = 0.03, d = 0.60). Voluntary activation (ITT) increased at 7min post-run (p = 0.04, d = 0.59) with PAP, yet decreased at 7min post-run in the control condition (p = 0.03, d = 0.36). A prior band-resisted squat protocol decreased running time and improved neuromuscular properties in endurance athletes running 5x1 km.

Key words: Post-activation potentiation, neuromuscular adaptations, running, endurance, power

           Key Points
  • First study to show that a 5RM jump squat conditioning stimulus positively affected neuromuscular and performance changes resulting in decreased time to complete the running task, increased muscle force generation, voluntary activation, and evoked contractile temporal properties.
  • A 5RM weighted jump squat protocol as part of a standardized running-specific warm-up will induce significant measurable post-activation potentiation (PAP) effects during the course of a subsequent 5 km time trial run and up to 7-minutes after the running protocol.
  • The results from this experiment are of particular importance to coaches, athletes and practitioners, who must consider the most effective method of warming up to increase and maintain performance.
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