Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine ( 2019 ) 18 , 376 - 383

Research article
Safety Evaluation of Protective Equipment for the Forearm, Shin, Hand and Foot in Taekwondo
Hee Seong Jeong1,2, David Michael O’Sullivan3, Sung-Cheol Lee1,2, Sae Yong Lee1,2,4 
Author Information
1 Yonsei Institute of Sports Science and Exercise Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea
2 Department of Physical Education, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea
3 Department of Sports Science, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea
4 Institute of Convergence Science, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea

Sae Yong Lee
✉ PhD, ATC Professor, Department of Physical Education, Yonsei University # 310 Sports Science Complex, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, South Korea
Email: sylee1@yonsei.ac.kr
Publish Date
Received: 07-11-2018
Accepted: 08-04-2019
Published (online): 01-06-2019
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ABSTRACT

The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare different brands of forearm, shin, hand and foot protective equipment used in Taekwondo. The most popular brands of large forearm, shin, hand and foot protectors (D®, A®, K ®), approved by the World Taekwondo and Korean Taekwondo Association, were examined. A drop test was used to test the protective equipment using impact levels of 3J, 9J, 12J and 15J for the forearm and shin guards, and 3J and 9J for the hand and foot protectors. The protective equipment was hit ten times from each of the designated drop heights. The drop test is described in the European standards manual of protective equipment for martial arts (SRPS EN 13277-2). The maximum force (MF) and impulse were lowest for brand K® (2610.3 ± 1474.1 N), and brand A® (9.6 ± 3.1 Ns), respectively, for the forearm guards; for brand A® (2053.4 ± 1267.1 N) and brand K® (9.8 ± 3.5 Ns), respectively, for the shin guards; for brand K® (4486.5 ± 1718.4 N), and brand A® (6.3 ± 1.1 Ns), respectively for the hand protectors; and for brand A® (3733.7 ± 2465.3 N), and brand D® (6.8 ± 0.6 Ns), respectively, for the foot protectors. For the forearm guard brand and impact level, there was a significant interaction effect for the MF (F=42.44, η2=.677, p <0.001) and impulse (F = 33.97, η2 = 0.626, p <0.001). Based on the MF, brand K® performed the best for the forearm guards and hand protectors, and brand A®, for the shin guards and foot protectors. The best results for the impulse were for brand A® (forearm guards and hand protectors), brand K® (shin guards) and brand D® (foot protectors).

Key words: Injury prevention, protectors, PSS, safety, Taekwondo rules


           Key Points
  • The best results for the maximum force were for brand K® (forearm guards and hand protectors), and brand A® (shin guards and foot protectors).
  • The best results for the impulse were for brand A®(forearm guards and hand protectors), brand K®(shin guards) and brand D® (foot protectors).
  • To prevent severe injuries, the protective equipment needs to be substantially improved (Even if the impact level is increasingly more than 3J, the resulting impact forces need to be reduced to <2000 N).
  • It recommends the development of more stringent protective equipment standards criteria to ensure the safety of Taekwondo athletes.
 
 
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