Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine ( 2019 ) 18 , 604 - 614

Review article
The Contraction Modalities in a Stretch-Shortening Cycle in Animals and Single Joint Movements in Humans: A Systematic Review
Martin Groeber1 , Lena Reinhart1,2, Philipp Kornfeind1, Arnold Baca1
Author Information
1 Centre of Sport Science and University Sports, Department of Biomechanics, Kinesiology and Computer Science in Sport, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
2 Institute of Sport Science, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany

Martin Groeber
‚úČ Martin Groeber Centre of Sport Science and University Sports, Department of Biomechanics, Kinesiology and Computer Science in Sport, University of Vienna, 1150 Vienna, Austria
Email: martin.groeber@univie.ac.at
Publish Date
Received: 05-06-2019
Accepted: 10-07-2019
Published (online): 01-12-2019
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ABSTRACT

A systematic literature search was conducted to review the force-enhancing mechanisms caused by a stretch-shortening cycle (SSC). The review aims to yield an overview of the contraction modalities influencing the SSC performance in animals and single joint movements in humans. The search was executed in common with the PRISMA statement. CINAHL, MEDLINE (via ProQuest), PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Web of Science databases were used for the systematic search from its inception until February 2019. A quality assessment was conducted with a modified Downs and Black checklist. Twenty-five studies were included. SSC effects, leading to increased force/work during a SSC and a reduced force depression (FD) compared to a pure shortening contraction, are existent on different levels of the muscle, from single fiber experiments to the level of in vivo muscle-tendon complex. Muscle performance is dependent on shortening velocity, shortening distance, stretch distance, the time (transition phase) between stretch and shortening and the active prephase duration. Concerning stretch velocity we found conflicting results. The findings from this systematic review indicate that the mechanisms in the early phase of shortening are associated with pre-activation effects, elastic recoil and stretch reflex. Furthermore, we speculate that residual force enhancement (RFE) is mainly responsible for an increased steady-state force compared to a pure shortening contraction.

Key words: Muscles, contraction, force enhancement, force depression


           Key Points
  • Reduced force depression at SSC experiments compared to pure shortening contractions.
  • Mechanical work in the shortening phase of SSC is dependent on the shortening amplitude, shortening velocity, stretch amplitude, the active prephase duration and the time (transition phase) between stretch and shortening.
  • The mechanism contributing to a performance enhancement in the SSC, especially the role of titin, has to be further investigated.
 
 
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