Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2020) 19, 721 - 726

Research article
Muscle Size and Strength of the Lower Body in Supervised and in Combined Supervised and Unsupervised Low-Load Resistance Training
Hayao Ozaki1,2, Shuji Sawada3, Takuya Osawa4, Toshiharu Natsume3, Toshinori Yoshihara2, Pengyu Deng2, Shuichi Machida2,3, , Hisashi Naito2,3
Author Information
1 School of Sport and Health Science, Tokai Gakuen University, Miyoshi, Aichi, Japan
2 Graduate School of Health and Sports Science, Juntendo University, Inzai, Chiba, Japan
3 COI Project Center, Juntendo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan
4 Faculty of Sports and Health Sciences, Japan Women’s College of Physical Education, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Shuichi Machida
✉ Graduate School of Health and Sports Science, Juntendo University, 1-1 Hirakagakuendai, Inzai, Chiba 270-1695, Japan
Email: machidas@juntendo.ac.jp
Publish Date
Received: 21-08-2020
Accepted: 27-09-2020
Published (online): 01-12-2020
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ABSTRACT

This study aimed to clarify whether low-load resistance training at a low frequency (twice a week) using body weight and elastic band improves muscle size, muscle strength, and physical functions and to compare the training effects between supervised training and a combination of supervised and unsupervised training in untrained older adults. Fifty-one older adults (ages: 57-75 years) selected to either a supervised (S) training group (n = 34) or a combined supervised and unsupervised (SU) group (n = 17). Both groups performed low-load resistance training composed of nine exercises for 12 weeks. The S group participated in supervised exercise sessions twice a week, and the SU group performed a supervised exercise session once a week and an unsupervised exercise session at home also once a week. For muscle thicknesses in the anterior aspects of the forearm, upper arm, and thigh and the posterior aspect of the thigh, group × time interactions were observed (p < 0.05). The hypertrophic effects were higher in the S group. Isometric knee extension strength and physical functions increased similarly in both groups. Low-load resistance training using body weight and elastic band twice a week for 12 weeks induces muscle hypertrophy and increases muscle strength and physical functions in older adults. Although the muscle hypertrophic effects are greater in the S group than in the SU group, the other effects were similar between the groups.

Key words: Aged, strength training, body weight, elastic band, muscle adaptations


           Key Points
  • Low-load resistance training using body weight and elastic bands even for only twice a week could induce muscle hypertrophy and increase muscle strength and physical functions in older adults after 12 weeks of training.
  • The muscle hypertrophic effects are greater in the supervised training group than in the combined supervised and unsupervised group.
  • The magnitude of increase in muscle strength and physical functions was similar between the groups.
 
 
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