Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
from September 2014
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2004) 03, 37 - 43

Research article
Effects of High-Impact Mechanical Loading on Synovial Cell Cultures
Irene Sun1, Yunlong Liu2,3, Shigeo M. Tanaka1, Chung W. Lee2, Hui Bin Sun1,2, Hiroki Yokota1,2,3, 
Author Information
1 Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, USA
2 Biomedical Engineering Program, Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, USA
3 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, USA

Hiroki Yokota
‚úČ Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 635 Barnhill Drive, MS-504, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
Publish Date
Received: 02-12-2003
Accepted: 06-02-2004
Published (online): 01-03-2004
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Cartilage metabolism in response to mechanical loading is an important subject in sports science and medicine. In animal studies high-impact exercise is known to stimulate bone adaptation and increase bone mass. However, mechanical impacts potentially induce tissue swelling and occasionally degradation of connective tissues in synovium and articular cartilage. These detrimental outcomes should be properly evaluated clinically and biochemically. Using two synovial cell cultures derived from normal and rheumatic tissues, we examined the biochemical effects of impulsive mechanical loads on expression and activities of influential proteolytic enzymes in joints, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and their natural inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). The molecular analysis demonstrates that an impact factor (Im), the ratio of the maximum force to weight, served as a good indicator for assessment of the inflammatory responses. The results showed that high impact above Im = 40 to 80 elevated not only expression but also enzymatic activities of MMPs.

Key words: Impulsive factor, rheumatoid arthritis, synovium, MMP

           Key Points
  • High-impact loading elevated expression and activities of MMPs in synovial cell cultures.
  • The impact factor was used to define intensity of high-impact loading.
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