Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
from September 2014
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2005) 04, 248 - 252

Research article
Doping and Performance Enhancing Drug Use in Athletes Living in Sivas, Mid-Anatolia: A Brief Report
Levent Özdemir1, , Naim Nur1, Ihsan Bagcivan2, Okay Bulut3, Haldun Sümer1, Gündüz Tezeren3
Author Information
1 Department of Public Health,
2 Department of Pharmacology,
3 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey

Levent Özdemir
✉ Ass. Prof. Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, 58140-Sivas, Turkey.
Publish Date
Received: 21-03-2005
Accepted: 11-05-2005
Published (online): 01-09-2005
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The aim of this study was to determine the rate of doping and performance enhancing drug use in athletes in Sivas, Turkey, and to analyze the main reasons for the use. This was a cross-sectional study based on a self-report questionnaire. The subjects filled the questionnaires under the supervision of the investigators during interviews. This questionnaire included 24 items describing the population in terms of demographics, sport practice, doping in sport and substance use. Moreover, we assessed the frequency of doping drug use. The number of respondents was 883, of which 433 athletes and 450 healthy non-athletes (control group). The mean age of the total volunteers was 21.8 ± 3.7 yrs. The male and female ratios were 78.2% and 21.8% respectively. Doping and performance enhancing drug usage rate was 8.0% (71cases in 883 subjects). Doping drug use among the athletes was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (14.5%) compared with the non-athletes (1.8%). The agents used were anabolic steroids in 60.5%, l-carnitene in 12.7%, erythropoietin in 5.4%, Na-bicarbonate in 11.3% and creatinine in 14.1% of 71 cases. The reasons for doping use were to have a better body condition in 34 cases (47.9%) and to solve weight (gaining or loosing) problems in 8 (11.3%) cases. Since the potential side effects of doping drugs are not satisfactorily familiar to the most users, the education of athletes on the matter must be a top priority.

Key words: Drug abuse, sports

           Key Points
  • Doping and performance enhancing drug use was 71 (8.0%) in 883 subjects, and it was significantly higher (14.5%) in the athletes compared with the non-athletes (1.8%) in Sivas, Turkey.
  • The rate of athletes who experienced such drugs at least once in their life was 29.0%.
  • The 52.4% of doping and performance enhancing drug users accepted that they were unaware of the drugs full and/or potential side effects.
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