Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2006) 05, 340 - 348

Research article
Assessment of Short-Distance Breaststroke Swimming Performance with Critical Velocity
Daijiro Abe1, , Hiroaki Tokumaru1, Shigemitsu Niihata2, Satoshi Muraki3, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka4, Sachio Usui5, Takayoshi Yoshida6
Author Information
1 Faculty of Integrated Cultures and Humanities, University of East Asia, Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi, Japan
2 Faculty of Welfare and Health, Fukuyama Heisei University, Fukuyama, Hiroshima, Japan
3 Department of Human Living System Design, Faculty of Design, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
4 Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan
5 Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima, Japan
6 Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan

Daijiro Abe
✉ Faculty of Integrated Cultures and Humanities, University of East Asia, 2-1 Ichinomiya Gakuen-cho, Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi 751-8503, Japan.
Email: daijiro@toua-u.ac.jp
Publish Date
Received: 14-04-2005
Accepted: 18-05-2006
Published (online): 01-06-2006
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ABSTRACT

For high-velocity running or swimming, the relationship between velocity (v) and its sustainable duration (t) can be described by a hyperbolic relationship: (v - Vcrit)·t = D’, where Vcrit is termed critical velocity, and D’ is defined as a curvature constant of the hyperbolic curve. The purposes of this study were to examine whether the Vcrit could be applied to evaluate short-distance breaststroke swimming performance and to evaluate the relative contribution of D’ in short-distance swimming performance. Eleven male swimmers performed a series of time trials corresponding to 75, 100, and 150-m in an indoor 50-m swimming pool. The observed records were calculated into average velocities of each event to determine Vcrit and D’. After the determination of Vcrit and D’, all subjects performed 50-m time trial on another day. A maximal anaerobic power test using cycle ergometer was also performed in the laboratory. The average velocity of the 50-m time trial significantly correlated with the obtained Vcrit, but not with D’. D’ was significantly correlated with the residual error, calculated from the regression analysis for the relationship between Vcrit and the average velocities of 50-m time trial. A cluster analysis showed that most of the subjects were classified as Vcrit dependency when performing 50-m time trial. Those results indicated that Vcrit could be applied to evaluate short-distance swimming performance, and it determined around 80% of the short-distance breaststroke swimming performance.

Key words: Critical swimming velocity, D’, hyperbolic curve, cluster analysis


           Key Points
  • For high-velocity running or swimming, the relationship between velocity (v) and its sustainable duration (t) can be described by a hyperbolic relationship: (v - V)·t = D’, where V is termed critical velocity, and D’ is defined as a curvature constant of the hyperbolic curve. The D’ contributed only around 20% of the breaststroke swimming performance even in a short-distance event.
  • Critical velocity determined around 80% of 50-m breaststroke swimming performance, and it could be a useful tool for evaluating short-distance swimming performance.
  • Most of the swimmers showed characteristics for critical velocity dependent physical fitness even in short-distance swimming event.
 
 
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