Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2007) 06, 28 - 33

Combat Sports Special Issue 2, Research article
Goal Profiles, Mental Toughness and its Influence on Performance Outcomes among Wushu Athletes
Garry Kuan , Jolly Roy
Author Information
Sports Science Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Kelantan State, Malaysia

Garry Kuan
✉ Sports Science Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kota Bharu, Kelantan State, Malaysia
Email: violinist_gary@yahoo.com
Publish Date
Received: 21-11-2006
Accepted: 15-06-2007
Published (online): 01-10-2007
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ABSTRACT

This study examined the association between goal orientations and mental toughness and its influence on performance outcomes in competition. Wushu athletes (n = 40) competing in Intervarsity championships in Malaysia completed Task and Ego Orientations in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and Psychological Performance Inventory (PPI). Using cluster analysis techniques including hierarchical methods and the non-hierarchical method (k-means cluster) to examine goal profiles, a three cluster solution emerged viz. cluster 1 - high task and moderate ego (HT/ME), cluster 2 - moderate task and low ego (MT/LE) and, cluster 3 - moderate task and moderate ego (MT/ME). Analysis of the fundamental areas of mental toughness based on goal profiles revealed that athletes in cluster 1 scored significantly higher on negative energy control than athletes in cluster 2. Further, athletes in cluster 1 also scored significantly higher on positive energy control than athletes in cluster 3. Chi-square (χ2) test revealed no significant differences among athletes with different goal profiles on performance outcomes in the competition. However, significant differences were observed between athletes (medallist and non medallist) in self- confidence (p = 0.001) and negative energy control (p = 0.042). Medallist’s scored significantly higher on self-confidence (mean = 21.82 ± 2.72) and negative energy control (mean = 19.59 ± 2.32) than the non-medallists (self confidence-mean = 18.76 ± 2.49; negative energy control mean = 18.14 ± 1.91).

Key words: Goal orientation, mental toughness, performance outcome


           Key Points
  • Mental toughness can be influenced by certain goal profile combination.
  • Athletes with successful outcomes in performance (medallist) displayed greater mental toughness.
 
 
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