Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
from September 2014
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2008) 07, 260 - 268

Research article
Relations of Self-Appraisal and Mood Changes with Voluntary Physical Activity Changes in African American Preadolescents in an After-School Care Intervention
James J. Annesi1, , Avery D. Faigenbaum2, Wayne L. Westcott3, Alice E. Smith4
Author Information
1 Director of Wellness Advancement, YMCA of Metropolitan Atlanta,
2 Department of Health and Exercise Science, The College of New Jersey,
3 South Shore YMCA, Quincy, MA
4 Child Health Promotion, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, USA

James J. Annesi
‚úČ YMCA of Metropolitan Atlanta, 100 Edgewood Avenue, NE, Suite 1100, Atlanta, Georgia 30303, USA
Publish Date
Received: 17-12-2007
Accepted: 14-04-2008
Published (online): 01-06-2008
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There is an increasing prevalence of overweight in preadolescents that predicts physical problems over the lifespan. Physical inactivity has been implicated as an associated factor, with African American youth being at an increased risk. Based on social cognitive theory, and proposed correlates of physical activity in youth, changes over 12 weeks in measures of self-appraisal (general self, physical appearance, physical self-concept, exercise barriers self-efficacy) and mood (tension, vigor), and their relations with voluntary physical activity changes, were assessed within an after-school care physical activity intervention. Participants were volunteers recruited from children already registered for a 12-week segment of YMCA after-school care. The treatment group consisted of 146 African American preadolescents with the control group comprised of 123 African American preadolescents who were scheduled to receive the program during the next sequence that it was offered. Results indicated the intervention group reported significantly more positive self-appraisals, reduced tension, and enhanced vigor. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses indicated that when each of the 4 self-appraisal and 2 mood factors were simultaneously entered into a regression equation, 36% of the variance in voluntary physical activity was explained. Findings support the treatment's association with theoretically based correlates of physical activity in the present sample, and suggest directions for physical activity interventions for youth.

Key words: Physical activity, exercise, body mass index, youth, health behavior

           Key Points
  • Social cognitive theory offers a framework for understanding correlates of physical activity in youth.
  • This study suggests that it is possible for a convenient physical activity intervention, led by after-school care counselors with minimal training, to improve participants' self-perceptions, mood, and voluntary physical activity.
  • Improvements in self-perceptions and mood appeared to be significantly associated with increased free-time physical activity in African American 8- to 12-year-olds.
  • This study's findings may lead to a better understanding of physical activity promotion in youth, and foster improvements in physical activity curricula.
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