Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
from September 2014
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2008) 07, 371 - 378

Research article
The Effect Of Different Corrective Feedback Methods on the Outcome and Self Confidence of Young Athletes
George Tzetzis1, , Evandros Votsis1, Thomas Kourtessis2
Author Information
1 Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, Greece
2 Democritus University of Thrace, Greece

George Tzetzis
‚úČ Christopoulou 9, 54635, Thessaloniki, Greece.
Publish Date
Received: 19-02-2008
Accepted: 01-07-2008
Published (online): 01-09-2008
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This experiment investigated the effects of three corrective feedback methods, using different combinations of correction, or error cues and positive feedback for learning two badminton skills with different difficulty (forehand clear - low difficulty, backhand clear - high difficulty). Outcome and self-confidence scores were used as dependent variables. The 48 participants were randomly assigned into four groups. Group A received correction cues and positive feedback. Group B received cues on errors of execution. Group C received positive feedback, correction cues and error cues. Group D was the control group. A pre, post and a retention test was conducted. A three way analysis of variance ANOVA (4 groups X 2 task difficulty X 3 measures) with repeated measures on the last factor revealed significant interactions for each depended variable. All the corrective feedback methods groups, increased their outcome scores over time for the easy skill, but only groups A and C for the difficult skill. Groups A and B had significantly better outcome scores than group C and the control group for the easy skill on the retention test. However, for the difficult skill, group C was better than groups A, B and D. The self confidence scores of groups A and C improved over time for the easy skill but not for group B and D. Again, for the difficult skill, only group C improved over time. Finally a regression analysis depicted that the improvement in performance predicted a proportion of the improvement in self confidence for both the easy and the difficult skill. It was concluded that when young athletes are taught skills of different difficulty, different type of instruction, might be more appropriate in order to improve outcome and self confidence. A more integrated approach on teaching will assist coaches or physical education teachers to be more efficient and effective.

Key words: Instructional cues, badminton skills, difficulty

           Key Points
  • The type of the skill is a critical factor in determining the effectiveness of the feedback types.
  • Different instructional methods of corrective feedback could have beneficial effects in the outcome and self-confidence of young athletes
  • Instructions focusing on the correct cues or errors increase performance of easy skills.
  • Positive feedback or correction cues increase self-confidence of easy skills but only the combination of error and correction cues increase self confidence and outcome scores of difficult skills.
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