Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
from September 2014
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2008) 07, 39 - 46

Research article
The Effects of Interval Feedback on The Self-Efficacy of Netball Umpires
Alison J. Mahoney, Tracey Devonport, Andrew M. Lane 
Author Information
University of Wolverhampton, UK

Andrew M. Lane
✉ Sport and Exercise Psychology, School of Sport, Performing Arts and Leisure, University of Wolverhampton, UK
Publish Date
Received: 14-03-2007
Accepted: 01-11-2008
Published (online): 01-03-2008
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The present study used quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the relationship between interval feedback and self-efficacy toward umpiring netball games. Grade “A ”level umpires (n = 7) provided feedback to umpires (n = 40) under two conditions; 1) interval feedback given at the end of one tournament game (after 14 minutes) and again at the end of a second consecutive game (after 28 minutes), and 2) feedback at the end of the game (after 28 minutes). Umpires in both conditions completed an Umpiring Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (USEQ) which was a 14-item measure designed to assess factors relevant to netball umpire performance. Participants completed the USEQ immediately before game one, during the interval, and after a second game. Umpires also completed a feedback questionnaire which enabled them to reflect on the feedback received. A repeated measures factorial (time x feedback condition) ANOVA indicated no significant interaction effect (F = 0.05, p > .05), and no main effect for condition (F = 0.06, p > .05) or time (F = 1.61, p > .05) for changes in self-efficacy. Although there were no significant effects, qualitative data alluded to aspects of feedback perceived to enhance umpire self-efficacy, thus identifying ways in which feedback might have a more consistent effect. Practical implications of the study in relation to verbal interval feedback are discussed.

Key words: Self-efficacy, confidence, feedback, measurement, mixed methods, interviews

           Key Points
  • Interval feedback may detract from umpires processing of information during a game.
  • Interval feedback can enhance self-efficacy.
  • Findings show that personal and situational factors interacted to determine the outcome of feedback.
  • Feedback should be tailored for the needs of the individual and take into account situational factors, to enhance the possibility of accruing positive outcomes.
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