Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2008) 07, 47 - 53

Research article
Relationship Between Maximum Shoulder External Rotation Angle During Throwing and Physical Variables
Koji Miyashita , Yukio Urabe, Hirokazu Kobayashi, Kiyoshi Yokoe, Sentaro Koshida, Morio Kawamura, Kunio Ida
Author Information
Hiroshima University, Kasumi1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, Japan

Koji Miyashita
‚úČ Dept. of Sport Rehabilitation, Division of PT & OT Sciences, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Kasumi1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, Japan
Email: kmiyashita@isc.chubu.ac.jp
Publish Date
Received: 10-08-2007
Accepted: 12-11-2007
Published (online): 01-03-2008
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ABSTRACT

The amount of stress imposed on shoulder and elbow appears to be directly correlated with the degree of maximum shoulder external rotation (MER) during throwing motions. Therefore, identifying risk factors contributing to the increase of MER angle may help to decrease the throwing injuries occurrence in baseball players. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the correlation between MER and the kinematic variables at stride foot contact (SFC) during the early cocking phase, the passive range of motion (ROM), and the shoulder strength. The subjects were 40 high school baseball players. Each subject carried out five throwing tasks with his maximum effort. A three-dimensional analysis was performed to obtain the MER, and the shoulder angles of external rotation (ER), extension and abduction at SFC in the early cocking phase. The ROM and muscle strength of the shoulder ER and internal rotation (IR) were also measured. Significant moderate linear correlations were found between the MER and the ER (r = -0.32, p = 0.04) at SFC, extension angle ( r= 0.35, p = 0.03) at SFC, IR strength (r = -0.30, p = 0.04) and passive ROM of ER (r = 0.46, p = 0.01). The shoulder IR and extension angles at SFC may determine the degree of the MER angle. Furthermore, weak IR muscle strength and excessive ROM of ER might be risk factors for shoulder and elbow injuries. The finding will enable us to establish better prevention and rehabilitation strategies for throwing injuries in baseball players.

Key words: Throwing, shoulder, elbow, injury prevention


           Key Points
  • It has been reported that the amount of stress imposed on shoulder and elbow joints is correlated with the degree of maximum shoulder external rotation angle (MER) during throwing. Therefore, controlling MER within a normal range plays a key role in the prevention for throwing-related injuries in baseball players.
  • Physical and biomechanical factors related to the degree of MER must be addressed to advance the current prevention and rehabilitation strategies for the shoulder and elbow injuries.
  • The current finding demonstrated that there was a significant moderate leaner correlation between shoulder internal rotation angle at the initial foot contact in the early cocking phase and MER.
 
 
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