Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2009) 08, 327 - 336

Research article
Relationships Between Physical Education Students’ Motivational Profiles, Enjoyment, State Anxiety, and Self-Reported Physical Activity
Sami Yli-Piipari1, , Anthony Watt1,2, Timo Jaakkola1, Jarmo Liukkonen1, Jari-Erik Nurmi3
Author Information
1 Department of Sport Sciences, Motor Behaviour Research Unit,
2 Victoria University, School of Education, Melbourne, Australia
3 Department of Psychology, University of Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla, Finland

Sami Yli-Piipari
✉ University of Jyväskylä, Department of Sport Sciences, P.O. Box, 35, 40014 University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
Email: sami.yli-piipari@sport.jyu.fi
Publish Date
Received: 14-01-2009
Accepted: 24-04-2009
Published (online): 01-09-2009
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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000) and how these profiles are related to physical education students’ enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213) completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1) the “High motivation profile”, in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the “Low motivation profile”, in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education.

Key words: Self-determination, cluster analysis, motivation, anxiety, behavioural


           Key Points
  • Two motivational profiles were revealed: 1) the “High motivation profile”, in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the “Low motivation profile”, in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation.
  • The students in the first profile enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active than the students in the second profile.
  • Moreover, the representatives of the “High motivation profile ”experienced greater anxiety toward physical education than the representatives of the “Low motivation profile”
  • These findings raised an interesting question whether students engaging in physical education benefit more from the presence of both self-determined and non-self-determined forms of motivation, or are the benefits higher if students are primarily self-determined?
 
 
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