Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
from September 2014
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2009) 08, 574 - 583

Research article
Effects of Endurance Running and Dietary Fat on Circulating Ghrelin and Peptide YY
Ryan D. Russell1,2, Kentz S. Willis3, Eric Ravussin1, Enette D. Larson-Meyer1,3, 
Author Information
1 Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
2 Department of Kinesiology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
3 University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA

Enette D. Larson-Meyer
‚úČ Department 3354, 1000 E University Avenue, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA
Publish Date
Received: 26-06-2009
Accepted: 09-09-2009
Published (online): 01-12-2009
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Ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) are newly recognized gut peptides involved in appetite regulation. Plasma ghrelin concentrations are elevated in fasting and suppressed following a meal, while PYY concentrations are suppressed in fasting and elevated postprandially. We determine whether ghrelin and PYY are altered by a low-fat, high-carbohydrate (10% fat, 75% carbohydrate) or moderate-fat, moderate-carbohydrate (35% fat, 50% carbohydrate) diet and; whether these peptides are affected by intense endurance running (which is likely to temporarily suppress appetite). Twenty-one endurance-trained runners followed a controlled diet (25% fat) and training regimen for 3 days before consuming the low-fat or isoenergetic moderate-fat diet for another 3 days in random cross-over fashion. On day 7 runners underwent glycogen restoration and then completed a 90-minute pre-loaded 10-km time trial on day 8, following a control breakfast. Blood samples were obtained on days 4 and 7 (fasting), and day 8 (non-fasting) before and after exercise for analysis of ghrelin, PYY, insulin and growth hormone (GH). Insulin, GH, Ghrelin and PYY changed significantly over time (p < 0.0001) but were not influenced by diet. Ghrelin was elevated during fasting (days 4 and 7), while insulin and PYY were suppressed. Following the pre-exercise meal, ghrelin was suppressed ~17% and insulin and PYY were elevated ~157 and ~40%, respectively, relative to fasting (day 7). Following exercise, PYY, ghrelin, and GH were significantly (p < 0.0001) increased by ~11, ~16 and ~813%, respectively. The noted disruption in the typical inverse relationship between ghrelin and PYY following exercise suggests that interaction of these peptides may be at least partially responsible for post-exercise appetite suppression. These peptides do not appear to be influenced by dietary fat intake.

Key words: Exercise-induced anorexia,, gut peptides,, appetite regulation,, hunger, exercise.

           Key Points
  • The study presents novel findings which address whether the appetite-stimulating gut peptide ghrelin and the appetite-suppressing peptide PYY are influenced by the fat content of the diet and/or by a bout of intense endurance running.
  • The low-fat, high-carbohydrate pre-exercise regimen compared to moderate-fat, moderate-carbohydrate regimen did not influence circulating plasma ghrelin and PYY concentrations
  • Most importantly, both gut peptides were elevated following two to two-and-a-half hours of strenuous running which lasted between two and two and a half hours. The noted disruption in the normal inverse relationship between ghrelin and PYY at rest suggests that the interaction of ghrelin and PYY may be at least partially responsible for exercise-induced anorexia which is commonly reported following vigorous endurance exercise.
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