Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
from September 2014
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2009) 08, 629 - 638

Research article
Scale Development for Measuring and Predicting Adolescents’ Leisure Time Physical Activity Behavior
Francis Ries1, , Santiago Romero Granados1, Silvia Arribas Galarraga2
Author Information
1 Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Educational Sciences, University of Seville, Seville, Spain
2 Department of Didactics of Self-expression through Movement. University College, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain

Francis Ries
✉ Departamento de Educación Física y Deporte, Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación, Universidad de Sevilla, Avenida de Ciudad Jardín, 20-22, E – 41005 Sevilla, España.
Publish Date
Received: 26-03-2009
Accepted: 12-10-2009
Published (online): 01-12-2009
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The aim of this study was to develop a scale for assessing and predicting adolescents’ physical activity behavior in Spain and Luxembourg using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework. The sample was comprised of 613 Spanish (boys = 309, girls = 304; M age =15.28, SD =1.127) and 752 Luxembourgish adolescents (boys = 343, girls = 409; M age = 14.92, SD = 1.198), selected from students of two secondary schools in both countries, with a similar socio-economic status. The initial 43-items were all scored on a 4-point response format using the structured alternative format and translated into Spanish, French and German. In order to ensure the accuracy of the translation, standardized parallel back-translation techniques were employed. Following two pilot tests and subsequent revisions, a second order exploratory factor analysis with oblimin direct rotation was used for factor extraction. Internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities were also tested. The 4-week test-retest correlations confirmed the items’ time stability. The same five factors were obtained, explaining 63.76% and 63.64% of the total variance in both samples. Internal consistency for the five factors ranged from α = 0.759 to α = 0. 949 in the Spanish sample and from α = 0.735 to α = 0.952 in the Luxembourgish sample. For both samples, inter-factor correlations were all reported significant and positive, except for Factor 5 where they were significant but negative. The high internal consistency of the subscales, the reported item test-retest reliabilities and the identical factor structure confirm the adequacy of the elaborated questionnaire for assessing the TPB-based constructs when used with a population of adolescents in Spain and Luxembourg. The results give some indication that they may have value in measuring the hypothesized TPB constructs for PA behavior in a cross-cultural context.

Key words: Psychology, public health, behavior, assessment, physical activity.

           Key Points
  • When using the structured alternative format, weak internal consistency was obtained. Rephrasing the items and scoring items on a Likert-type scale enhanced greatly the subscales reliability.
  • Identical factorial structure was extracted for both culturally different samples.
  • The obtained factors, namely perceived physical competence, parents’ physical activity, perceived resources support, attitude toward physical activity and perceived parental support were hypothesized as for the original TPB constructs.
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