Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
from September 2014
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2010) 09, 275 - 281

Research article
Frontal Plane Knee Moments in Golf: Effect of Target Side Foot Position at Address
Scott K. Lynn , Guillermo J. Noffal
Author Information
California State University, Department of Kinesiology, Fullerton, CA, USA

Scott K. Lynn
‚úČ California State University, Fullerton. Department of Kinesiology, 800 N. State College Blvd., Fullerton, CA, USA.
Publish Date
Received: 21-01-2010
Accepted: 23-03-2010
Published (online): 01-06-2010
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Golf has the potential to keep people active well into their later years. Injuries to the target side knee have been reported in golfers, yet no mechanisms for these injuries have been proposed. The loads on the knee during the golf swing may be insufficient to cause acute injury, yet they may be a factor in the progression of overuse/degenerative conditions; therefore, research developing swing modifications that may alter loading of the knee is warranted. It has been suggested that the proper golf set-up position has the target-side foot externally rotated but no reasoning for this modification has been provided. Frontal plane knee moments have been implicated in many knee pathologies. Therefore, this study used a 3-dimensional link segment model to quantify the frontal plane knee moments during the golf swing in a straight (STR) and externally rotated (EXT) target-side foot position. Subjects were 7 collegiate golfers and knee moments were compared between conditions using repeated measures T-tests. The golf swing knee moment magnitudes were also descriptively compared to those reported for two athletic maneuvers (drop jump landing, side-step cutting) and activities of daily living (gait, stair ascent). The EXT condition decreased the peak knee adduction moment as compared to the STR condition; however, foot position had no effect on the peak knee abduction moment. Also, the magnitude of the knee adduction moments during the two activities of daily living were 9-33% smaller than those experienced during the two different golfing conditions. The drop jump landing and golf swing knee moments were of similar magnitude (STR= - 5%, EXT= + 8%); however, the moments associated with side- step cutting were 50-71% larger than those on the target side knee during the golf swing. The loading of the target side knee during the golf swing may be a factor in the development and progression of knee pathologies and further research should examine ways of attenuating these loads through exercise and swing modifications.

Key words: Golf, ACL injury, biomechanics, knee abduction (valgus) moment/torque, knee adduction (varus) moment/torque, knee osteoarthritis

           Key Points
  • An externally rotated front foot position at address would be recommended for those with medial knee pathology in the target side limb.
  • There is a large valgus moment on the target side knee during the golf swing that is not decreased with external rotation of the foot at address.
  • The potential of the knee moments on the target side limb to lead to knee pathologies in golfers needs to be further investigated.
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