Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2010) 09, 36 - 50

Research article
Stability of Patterns of Behavior in the Butterfly Technique of the Elite Swimmers
Hugo Louro1,2, , António J. Silva2,3, Teresa Anguera2,4, Daniel A. Marinho2,5, Conceição Oliveira2,4, Ana Conceição1,2, Jorge Campaniço2,3,4
Author Information
1 Sports Sciences School of Rio Maior, Polytechnic Institute of Santarém, Portugal
2 Centre of Research in Sports, Health and Human Development, Vila Real, Portugal
3 University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Department of Sport Sciences, Exercise and Health, Vila Real, Portugal
4 University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
5 University of Beira Interior, Department of Sport Sciences, Covilhã, Portugal

Hugo Louro
✉ Escola Superior de Desporto de Rio Maior, Av. Dr. Mário Soares. Pavilhão Multisuos, 2040-413 Rio Maior, Portugal
Email: hlouro@esdrm.pt
Publish Date
Received: 07-07-2009
Accepted: 03-12-2009
Published (online): 01-03-2010
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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to find patterns in the butterfly swimming technique, with an adaptation of the Behavioral Observation System Tech. This, as an instrument for ad-hoc qualitative analysis, enables the study of the stability of the technical implementation. When used in the training of swimmers, analysis can reduce the variability of behavioral tuning swimming technique. Through the analysis of temporal patterns (T-pattern) and a sequence of five cycles running at hand maximum speed, the behavior of four technical Portuguese elite swimmers, with a record of 259 alphanumeric codes and a total of 160 configurations, were studied. The structure of the original instrument, based on a mixed system of categories and formats Field, can record technical features, observed during the execution of hand cycles. The validity was ensured through the index of intra-observer reliability (95%) and inter-observer accuracy (96%). To detect patterns in each swimmer, the Theme 5.0 software was used, which allowed to identify the stable structures of technical performance within a critical interval of time (p <0.05) - t-patterns. The patterns were different, adjusting to the characteristics of technical implementation of the swimmers. It was found that the swimmer can create settings with different levels of structure complexity, depending on the implementation of changes within the hand cycle. Variations of codes in each configuration obtained using the SOCTM, allowed determining the differences between swimmers. However, the records showed a clear behavioral similarity when comparing the result with a general pattern of the butterfly technique. The potential quality of this instrument seems to be important due to the patterns obtained from a temporal sequence.

Key words: Technical analysis, patterns, butterfly, chronology


           Key Points
  • The patterns were different, adjusting to the characteristics of technical implementation of the swimmers.
  • The swimmer can make settings with different levels of structure complexity, depending on the implementation of changes within the hand cycle.
  • Variations of codes in each configuration obtained using the SOCTM, allowed determining the differences between swimmers.
  • The records showed a clear behavioral similarity when comparing the result with a general pattern of the butterfly technique.
  • The potential quality of this instrument seems to be important due to the patterns obtained from a temporal sequence.
 
 
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