Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2011) 10, 341 - 345

Research article
May I Curse a Referee? Swear Words and Consequences
Andrea Praschinger1, , Christine Pomikal1, Stefan Stieger2
Author Information
1 Freelance scientist, Vienna
2 Department of Basic Psychological Research, School of Psychology, University of Vienna, Austria

Andrea Praschinger
✉ Promenadegasse 18/9, 1170 Vienna, Austria
Email: a.praschinger@chello.at
Publish Date
Received: 07-09-2010
Accepted: 05-03-2011
Published (online): 01-06-2011
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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine whether male and female soccer (football) referees would execute the Laws of the Game despite players’ verbal abuse. Law 12 (Fouls and misconduct) instructs the referees as to how they should react when a player, substitute or substituted player expresses a swear word. The player should be issued a red card. Referees (n = 113) were presented with 28 swear words and asked how they would respond if this situation occurred in a real game (red card, yellow/blue card [blue cards are used in juvenile games, player leaves field of game for 10 minutes], admonition, no reaction). The selected words were divided into categories (such as pertaining to intelligence or sexual abuse) indicating different degrees of insult. Approximately half of the referees would have responded to players saying swear words in a game by issuing a red card (55.7% red card, 25.2% yellow/blue card, 12.1% admonition, and 7.0% no reaction). The response was independent of the referees’ qualification and experience. It was found that the insulting content of a swear word determines the referee’s decision. Referees would apply Law 12 only in one half of the cases, depending on the insulting content. The findings are discussed in the context of game management.

Key words: Soccer, referees, Law 12, game management


           Key Points
  • Lack of consistency in referees’ response to a verbal offence.
  • Referees’ qualification as well as the duration of serving as a referee did not influence the effect.
  • The insulting content is crucial for a red card.
 
 
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