Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Views
7176
Download
302
from September 2014
 
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2011) 10, 590 - 595

Case report
The Application of Biomechanics to Penalty Corner Drag-Flick Training: a Case Study
Cristina López de Subijana1, , Daniel Juárez2, Javier Mallo2, Enrique Navarro2
Author Information
1 Social Sciences Applied to Physical Activity and Sport Department,
2 Sport Biomechanics Laboratory, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Cristina López de Subijana
✉ Social Sciences Applied to Physical Activity and Sport Department, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Technical University of Madrid, Avda. Martin Fierro 7, 28040, Madrid, Spain
Email: c.lopezdesubijana@upm.es
Publish Date
Received: 20-04-2011
Accepted: 15-06-2011
Published (online): 01-09-2011
Share this article
 
ABSTRACT

The penalty corner is one of the most important game situations in field hockey with one third of all goals resulting from this tactical situation. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a training method, based on previous studies, to improve the drag- flick skill on a young top-class field hockey player. A young top-class player exercised three times per week using specific drills over a four week period. A VICON optoelectronic system (Oxford Metrics, Oxford, UK) was employed to capture twenty drag-flicks, with six cameras sampling at 250 Hz, prior and after the training period. In order to analyze pre- and post-test differences a dependent t-test was carried out. Angular velocities and the kinematic sequence were similar to previous studies. The player improved (albeit not significantly) the angular velocity of the stick. The player increased front foot to the ball at T1 (p < 0.01) and the drag-flick distances. The range of motion from the front leg decreased from T1 to T6 after the training period (p < 0.01). The specific training sessions conducted with the player improved some features of this particular skill. This article shows how technical knowledge can help with the design of training programs and whether some drills are more effective than others.

Key words: Hitting/batting, biomechanics, techniques, field hockey, training.


           Key Points
  • This article adds information about the drag-flick kinematics.
  • This article adds information about how to train the drag-flick.
  • The drag-flick is the most efficient technique shooting for goal after a penalty corner.

INTRODUCTION

The penalty corner is one of the most important game situations in field hockey, with one third of the goals resulting from this tactical situation (Laird and Sutherland, 2003; Piñeiro, 2008). The drag-flick is between 1.4 and 2.7 times more efficient than hitting or push-shooting the ball towards the goal when playing a penalty corner (McLaughlin, 1997; Piñeiro et al., 2007; Yusoff et al., 2008).

Only a few studies have analyzed the drag-flick. Some of them have provided kinematic information about players from different levels (McLaughlin, 1997; Yusoff et al., 2008; López de Subijana et al., 2010). These authors reported the cues which indicated a drag-flick: a wide stance, a whipping action of the stick before the hips and shoulders were rotated, and a final acceleration of the stick. In addition, Baker et al., 2009 focused on anticipation skills of the goalkeepers, while Jennings et al., 2010 studied the registered forces on the face of the stick. All of these studies were descriptive in nature.

Most of the previous field hockey experimental studies have focussed on training topics, such as endurance (Manna et al., 2009; Chapman et al., 2009), general physical condition (Astorino et al., 2004; Spencer et al., 2004), velocity (Bloomfield et al., 2007) and strength (Cochrane and Stannard, 2005). In relation to technical training, Beckamnn et al., 2010 applied different treatments for the push and the flick in indoor hockey twice per week during six weeks, obtaining very heterogeneous findings. To date, no studies have been conducted concerning the training of the drag-flick skill in field hockey.

Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and apply a training method, based on previous studies, to improve the drag-flick skill on a young top-class field hockey player.

METHODS

One male drag-flicker (19 years old; 66.8 kg; 1.71 m; eight years of field hockey experience) participated in this study. He was a drag- flicker from the under-21 Spanish National Team. The participant was requested to provide informed consent prior to his participation. The University’s Ethics Committee approved the research protocol.

The training sessions were conducted in the hockey field of the Spanish Sports Council’s High Performance Centre. The player exercised three times per week using specific drills over a four week period, completing a total of 12 sessions (Beckamnn et al., 2010). The average duration of the training sessions was 45 minutes and they were supervised by a qualified hockey coach and ex-Olympic athlete. The training sessions started with a preliminary warm up which was followed by four drills ordered by increasing complexity (Figures 1, Figures 2, Figures 3 and Figures 4). Each drill was related to findings from previous studies (McLaughlin, 1997; Yusoff et al., 2008; López de Subijana et al., 2010) and it was performed in 2 sets with 7 repetitions per set (2x7). After each drill, 10 free drag- flicks were performed in order to add the new information to the overall movement. The training sessions were designed and organized according to a panel of expert. All the coaches selected had a minimum of 10 years experience as hockey coaches and they were members of the staff of the Royal Spanish Hockey Federation. Three dimensional (3D) data analysis was conducted prior to and after the training period.

All of the measurements were carried out in the Biomechanics Laboratory of the Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences at the Technical University of Madrid. A VICON optoelectronic system (Oxford Metrics, Oxford, UK) captured the drag-flicks with six cameras, sampling at 250 Hz. The experimental space was 5m long, 2.5m wide and 2m high, and was dynamically and statically calibrated with an error of less than 2 cm and a static reproducibility of 0.4%. A total of 49 retro- reflective markers (46 body markers and three 14 mm diameter stick markers) were attached to anatomical landmarks following VICON’s kinematics model (Vicon Motion Systems, 2003). The stick markers were placed where the player’s grip began, at the toe of the shaft, and at the end of the shaft. The stick’s features (height: 94 cm; mass: 584.6 g; distance between the center of mass position and the end of the shaft: 38.4 cm) were approved by the International Hockey Federation (2009). Raw data were filtered using quintic spline functions based on Woltring’s Generalized Cross-Validation (GCV) method for calculating the smoothing factor (Woltring, 1986). As markers could not be placed on the ball, an official field hockey ball was covered with adhesive reflective material. VICON cameras recognized the ball as a marker and ball velocity was estimated.

After a specific warm-up, 20 trials were carried out and captured at habitual speed. In each trial, the participant shot into a goal area marked with a fence in front of the player. If the participant did not score in the goal area, the trial was rejected. The ball was placed by the subject approximately 1.5 to 2 m away from the centre of the calibrated area. The drag-flick movement commenced once the front foot made contact with the floor, and finished 20 frames after the stick’s peak positive angular velocity. The pelvis, upper trunk and stick angles were calculated using the line of the double foot contact as the y-axis, the x-axis as 90° to the right of the y-axis and the z-axis as the vertical axis. The angular velocities were computed from the angles formed by the upper trunk (shoulder line), pelvis (hip line), and stick with the x-axis on the xy plane. The knee flexion angle was computed for the front leg only. The knee flexion angle was computed for the front leg only.

The following key events of the drag-flick were identified: T1 (front foot contact); T2 (maximum angular velocity of the pelvis); T3 (peak negative angular velocity of the stick); T4 (maximum angular velocity of the upper trunk); T5 (maximum angular velocity of the stick); and T6 (ball release). The event times were normalized to the T1-T6 times. The stance width, drag-flick distance and the front foot-ball distance at T1 were normalized to the player’s height.

Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS v.16 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, United States). The means and standard deviations of the study parameters were calculated. In order to analyze pre- and post-test differences, a dependent t-test was carried out. The alpha level of significance was set at p < 0.05 for all statistical tests.

RESULTS

The player achieved ball velocities of 24.9 ± 0.9 m·s-1 prior to the training period and 24.6 ± 0.8 m·s-1 after the training period. The angular velocities are shown in Table 1. The angular velocities of the stick in the post-test improved (p = 0. 05) up to -256.0 ± 56.05 °/s the negative peak and 1315.4 ± 153.9 °/s the maximum peak. The maximum angular velocity of the upper trunk reached 475.3 ± 32.4 °/s after the training period (p = 0.05). Table 2 shows the kinematic sequence, which was similar before and after the training period. Peak angular velocity of the pelvis was recorded at 35.9 ± 5.4 and 38.9 ± 2.8% of the total time. The whipping effect of the stick was found close to 50% of the duration of the drag-flick (51.8 ± 4.4 and 50.8 ± 4.1 %). The maximum angular velocity of the stick was achieved near the release (101.3 ± 5.9 and 100.3 ± 5.1 %). Distance and angular parameters are shown in Table 3. The player increased 9 cm (p < 0.01) the distance from the front foot to the ball at T1 and 7 cm (p = 0.05) the drag-flick distance The range of motion from the front leg decreased from T1 to T6 after the training period (p < 0.01), from 37.7 ± 3.7° to 27.3 ± 3.9°, respectively.

DISCUSSION

The present study has shown improvements on the technical performance of a young top-class player, even though the training period was only four weeks long.The player achieved ball velocities which were close to those recorded by high performance players who have participated in previous studies (López de Subijana et al., 2010; Yusoff et al., 2008;), but lower than the 30.5 m·s-1 measured using radar by Baker et al., 2009. The values reported for the negative peak of the angular velocity of the stick, the maximum angular velocity of the pelvis and the maximum angular velocity of the upper trunk were in the range suggested in a previous study (López de Subijana et al., 2010). The angular velocity of the stick was lower than that of a skilled drag-flicker (1890.1 ± 72.8 °/s) and the male’s group (1473.2 ± 177.8 °/s) from López de Subijana et al., 2010. This could be due to the age of the participant in this case study, as the player was young (19 years old), compared with the samples in previous studies (López de Subijana et al., 2010; Yusoff et al., 2008). The kinematic sequence was similar to that previously reported. Data concerning the stance width were similar to those found by McLaughin (1997), Yusoff et al., 2008 and López de Subijana et al., 2010. Drag-flick velocity was lower than the 11.6 m·s-1 and 12.3 m·s-1 recorded by López de Subijana et al., 2010 and McLaughin (1997), respectively.

The results of this study have shown improvements during the earlier phases of the skill..The player increased drag-flick front foot to the ball at double foot contact (T1) distances. These improvements could be due to drills number 1 (rolling the ball on the stick), 2 (taking the ball behind the rear foot), and 3 (making the last stance wider). The previous phase is very important in order to prepare a clear drag of the stick before the final acceleration. Complementarily, the player achieved a no statistically significant higher maximum angular velocity of the stick. The front leg flexion decreased after training, similarly to the skilled drag-flicker studied by López de Subijana et al., 2010.

A limitation of this study could be that there were two data collection, prior and after the training period. Beckamnn et al., 2010 also registered the precision six and twelve weeks later in order to measure the retention of the treatments.

CONCLUSION

The specific training sessions conducted with the player improved some features of this particular skill. The player took the ball further at double foot contact, dragged the ball a longer distance and obtained higher angular velocity of the stick.

This article shows how technical knowledge can help with the design of training programs and whether some drills are more effective than others.

AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY

Journal of Sports Science and Medicine Cristina López de Subijana
Employment: Assistant Lecturer at Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Technical University of Madrid.
Degree: PhD.
Research interests: Biomechanics applied to sport, tennis, hockey..etc.
E-mail: c.lopezdesubijana@upm.es
 

Journal of Sports Science and Medicine Daniel Juárez
Employment: Post Doc Student at Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Technical University of Madrid.
Degree: PhD.
Research interests: Training, football, biomechanics applied to sport.
E-mail: djuarezsg@yahoo.es
 

Journal of Sports Science and Medicine Javier Mallo
Employment: Assistant Lecturer at Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Technical University of Madrid.
Degree: PhD.
Research interests: Training, football biomechanics applied to sport.
E-mail: javier.mallo@upm.es
 

Journal of Sports Science and Medicine Enrique Navarro
Employment: Lecturer at Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Technical University of Madrid. Head of the Sport Biomechanics Laboratory.
Degree: PhD.
Research interests: Biomechanics applied to sport, athletics, tennis, football, hockey…ect.
E-mail: enrique.navarro@upm.es
 
 
REFERENCES
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine Astorino T.A., Tam P.A., Rietschel J.C., Johnson S.M., Freedman T.P. (2004) Changes in physical fitness parameters during a competitive field hockey season. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 18, 850-854.
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine Baker J., Farrow D., Elliott B., Alderson J. (2009) The influence on processing time on expert anticipation. International Journal of Sport Psychology 40, 476-479.
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine Beckamnn H., Winkel C., Shöllhorn W.I. (2010) Optimal Range of variation in hockey technique training. International Journal of Sport Psychology 41, 5-45.
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine Bloomfield J., Polman R., O’Donoghue P., McNaughton L. (2007) Effective speed and agility conditioning methodology for random intermittent dynamic type sports. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 21, 1093-1100.
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine Chapman D.W., Newton M.J., McGuigan M.R. (2009) Efficacy of interval-based training on condicitioning of amateur field hockey players. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23, 712-717.
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine Cochrane D.J., Stannard S.R. (2005) Acute whole body vibration training increases vertical jump and flexibility performance in elite female field hockey players. British Journal of Sports Medicine 39, 860-865.
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine Jennings M.J., Blanchonettea I., Lucas S.R., Morgan S.W., Helmer R.J.N., Yang C. (2010) Instrumentation of a field hockey stick to detect stick and ball interaction during a drag flick. 8th Conference of the International Sports Engineering Association (ISEA). Procedia Engineering 2, 2979-2984.
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine Laird P., Sutherland P. (2003) Penalty corners in field hockey: a guide to success. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport 3, 19-26.
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine López de Subijana C., Juarez D., Mallo J., Navarro E. (2010) Biomechanical analysis of the penalty-corner drag-flick of elite male and female hockey players. Sports Biomechanics 9, 72-78.
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine Manna I., Khanna G.L., Dhara P.C. (2009) Training induced changes on physiological and biochemical variables of young Indian field hockey players. Biology of Sport 26, 33-43.
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine McLaughlin P. (1997) Three-dimensional biomechanical analysis of the hockey drag flick: full report. Belconnen, A.C.T., Australia. Australian Sports Commission.
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine Piñeiro R. (2008) Observación y análisis de la acción de gol en hockey hierba. Sevilla. Wanceulen.
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine Piñeiro R., Sampedro J., Refoyo I. (2007) Differences between international men’s and women’s teams in the strategic action of the penalty corner in field hockey. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport 7, 67-83.
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine Spencer M., Bishop D., Lawrence S. (2004) Longitudinal assessment of the effects of field-hockey training on repeated sprint ability. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 7, 323-334.
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine Vicon (2003) Vicon user manual. Oxford, UK. Oxford Metrics.
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine Woltring H.J. (1986) A Fortran package for generalized, cross-validatory spline smoothing and differentiation. Advances in Engineering Software and Workstations 8, 104-113.
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine Yusoff S., Hasan N., Wilson B. (2008) Tree-dimensional biomechanical analysis of the hockey drag flick performed in competition. ISN Bulletin, National Sport Institute of Malaysia 1, 35-43.
 
 
 
Home Issues About Authors
Contact Current Editorial board Authors instructions
Email alerts In Press Mission For Reviewers
Archive Scope
Supplements Statistics
Most Read Articles
  Most Cited Articles
 
  
 
JSSM | Copyright 2001-2020 | All rights reserved. | LEGAL NOTICES | Publisher

It is forbidden the total or partial reproduction of this web site and the published materials, the treatment of its database, any kind of transition and for any means, either electronic, mechanic or other methods, without the previous written permission of the JSSM.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.