Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN: 1303 - 2968   
Ios-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Androit-APP Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
from September 2014
©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2011) 10, 643 - 648

Research article
Relationship of Initial Self-Regulatory Ability with Changes in Self-Regulation and Associated Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Severely Obese Women Initiating an Exercise and Nutrition Treatment: Moderation of Mood and Self-Efficacy
James J. Annesi 
Author Information
YMCA of Metropolitan Atlanta, USA,

James J. Annesi
✉ YMCA of Metropolitan Atlanta, 100 Edgewood Avenue, NE, Suite 1100, Atlanta, Georgia, 30303, USA
Publish Date
Received: 26-04-2011
Accepted: 18-08-2011
Published (online): 01-12-2011
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An emphasis on increasing self-regulation is an alternate to nutrition education, which has had poor results in the behavioral treatment of obesity. Although appropriately designed weight-loss treatments may enhance one’s self-regulatory ability to control eating, whether improvements are moderated by psychosocial factors such as initial self-regulatory skills use, self-efficacy to control eating, and mood is unknown. Severely obese women (BMI 35-50 kg·m-2) were randomized into 26-week treatments of exercise supported by cognitive-behavioral methods paired with either nutrition education (n = 114) or cognitive-behavioral methods applied to controlled eating (n = 121). Improvement in self-regulation for controlled eating was 36.9% greater (p < 0.01) for the group incorporating cognitive-behavioral methods for controlled eating. Change in self-regulation was significantly associated with self-regulation at baseline (β = -0.33). Both mood and self-efficacy for controlled eating significantly moderated this relationship. Increased self-regulation was associated with both increases in fruit and vegetable consumption and fruit and vegetable intake at treatment end. The present findings increase our understanding of psychosocial variables associated with increased self-regulatory skills usage and improvements in eating that, after replication, may be used to improve the effects of behavioral weight-loss treatments.

Key words: Behavioral treatment, cognitive-behavioral, health psychology, obesity treatment, self-regulation

           Key Points
  • Initial self-regulatory abilities do not appear to affect improvements in self-regulation for eating, however direct training in behavioral skills are predictors of change.
  • The relationship of self-regulation improvements and improved eating is significant, and affected by mood and self-efficacy in women with obesity.
  • Instruction in behavioral skills such as cognitive restructuring and relapse prevention is associated with better improvements in eating than typical methods of nutrition education.
  • Cognitive-behavioral methods for exercise may be paired with cognitive-behavioral methods for eating to maximize longer-term effects on eating behaviors.
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